GREAT DOCTRINES OF THE BIBLE

by William Evans

 

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by Rev. William Evans


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Title: The Great Doctrines of the Bible


Author: Rev. William Evans


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THE GREAT DOCTRINES OF THE BIBLE


By REV. WILLIAM EVANS, Ph.D., D.D.


DEDICATED TO MY WIFE




CONTENTS


THE DOCTRINE OF GOD


THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST


THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT


THE DOCTRINE OF MAN


THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION

Repentance--Faith--Regeneration--Justification--Adoption--

Sanctification--Prayer


THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH


THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES


THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS


THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN


THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS

The Second Coming of Christ--The Resurrection--The Judgment--The

Destiny of the Wicked--The Reward of the Righteous



FOREWORD.


The demand for this book has come from the students in the class

room who have listened to these lectures on the Great Doctrines

of the Bible, and have desired and requested that they be put into

permanent form for the purpose of further study and reference. This

volume is prepared, therefore, primarily, but not exclusively, for

the student, and with his needs in mind.


The doctrines herein treated are dealt with from the standpoint of

Biblical rather than Dogmatic theology. This is evident from the

plan which is followed in the work, namely, to gather together all

the Scripture passages dealing with the subject under consideration,

and from them choose a required number that may be called representative;

then seek to understand the meaning of these references by the study

of the text itself as well as its context and parallel passages;

and finally, from the selected proof-texts, formulate the doctrinal

teaching, and place such results under appropriate headings.


The doctrines of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit are more

fully dealt with than the doctrines which follow. This is especially

true of the doctrine of God. The reason for this is to set forth

the method pursued in these studies, and to give a pattern for the

study of the doctrines to follow.


It is intended that the doctrines of this book should be studied

side by side with the open Bible. It is for this reason that many

of the Scripture references are indicated by chapter and verse

only. There must be constant reference to the Scriptures themselves.


This volume is in such form as to be of great service in the

instruction given in Bible classes. There is probably no greater

need in the Christian church today than that its membership should

be made acquainted with the fundamental facts and doctrines of

the Christian faith. The Christian layman, therefore, who desires

a deeper knowledge of the doctrines of the Christian faith may find

all the help he needs in this book. It is hoped that while it is

prepared for the student, it is nevertheless not too deep for the

average layman.


The special indebtedness of the writer is hereby expressed to the

following works: "What the Bible Teaches," by R. A. Torrey, D. D.

To this work the writer owes much with regard to the method and

plan of this book. "Systematic Theology," by A. H. Strong, D. D.,

has provided some rich expositions of the sacred text. "Christian

Doctrine," by Dr. F. L. Patton, has been found very helpful,

especially in connection with the subject of the "Proofs for the

Existence of God." Further recognition of indebtedness is also

due to the following: "The Problem of the Old Testament," and "The

Christian View of God and the World," by Dr. James Orr; "Studies

in Christian Doctrine," by George Knapp; "Jesus and the Gospel,"

and "The Death of Christ," by Prof. James Denny; "The Person and

Work of Jesus," by Nathan E. Wood, D. D.


There are doubtless others to whom credit is due of whom the author

is not at this time conscious, for, after all, we are "part of all

that we have seen, and met, and read." To those unknown authors,

therefore, our indebtedness is hereby acknowledged.


_Chicago._ WILLIAM EVANS.





ATTENTION - "SLBC NOTE:" means "Salt Lake Bible College" note of

correction.


[SLBC NOTE: There are certain parts of this book that are in error.

Whenever you see a "*" it is an indication that there is a doctrinal

error that must be corrected. Immediately after or shortly after the

"*" you will see this heading: " * [SLBC NOTE: ......] . The text within

the brackets will give the explanation of why that particular teaching is

not scriptural. Then, after the note, the textbook will continue.]


[SLBC NOTE: Unfortunately the author of the textbook chose to use

Minority Text Versions of the Bible in some places. We apologize that we

had to use a text that does so but there was no other textbook in the

public domain that we could find. This is one of the cases where the

student will have to "eat the chicken and spit out the bones."

It is hoped that at some time in the future we will be able to go through

the text and replace the inferior version quotes with those from the

Majority Text/Received Text version known as the KJV, and mark those

changes as being made by the editor to distinguish them from the original

text of the author. Again, our apologies; but we have no other book at this time,

that we can find, that is in the Public Domain that we could use as a textbook.

   Spelling-  It has been decided to retain the spelling as it was in the original.

Some archaic words and some misspellings will be found.  Also, there have

been some misspelling caused when the book was formatted by project Gutenberg.

We have tried as best we could to find and correct those mistakes.  However,

sometimes it is hard to tell if the misspelling was caused when it was turned into

an ebook or if it is one of those that were in the original text.  Please overlook such

errors.

   Currently we do not have the staff to comb every page of every public domain

text that is used in our courses.  Therefore, some errors will be found.  If you

would bring those to our attention we will do our best to correct them.  And

your help will be much appreciated.

   When the Lord deems it is time to supply us with more staff we will revisit

this problem of misspellings, as well as several other formatting problems,

and rectify them at that time.  -  Doc Van]





THE DOCTRINE OF GOD


I. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD: (Vs. Atheism).

   1. ASSUMED BY THE SCRIPTURES.

   2. PROOFS OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.

      a) Universal belief in the Existence of God.

      b) Cosmological:--Argument from Cause.

      c) Teleological:--Argument from Design.

      d) Ontological:--Argument from Being.

      e) Anthropological:--Moral Argument.

      f) Argument from Congruity.

      g) Argument from Scripture.


II. THE NATURE OF GOD: (Vs. Agnosticism)

   1. THE SPIRITUALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Materialism).

   2. THE PERSONALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Pantheism).

   3. THE UNITY OF GOD: (Vs. Polytheism).

   4. THE TRINITY: (Vs. Unitarianism).


III. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

   1. THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES:

      a) Omniscience.

      b) Omnipotence.

      c) Omnipresence.

      d) Eternity.

   2. THE MORAL ATTRIBUTES:

      a) Holiness.

      b) Righteousness.

      c) Faithfulness.

      d) Mercy and Loving-kindness.

      e) Love.



I. HIS EXISTENCE.


1. TAKEN FOR GRANTED BY THE SCRIPTURE WRITERS:


It does not seem to have occurred to any of the writers of either

the Old or the New Testaments to attempt to prove or to argue for

the existence of God. Everywhere and at all times it is a fact

taken for granted. "A God capable of proof would be no God at all"

(Jacobi). He is the self-existent One (Exod. 3:14) and the Source

of all life (John 5:26).


The sublime opening of the Scriptures announces the fact of God and

His existence: "In the beginning God" (Gen. 1:1). Nor is the rise

or dawn of the idea of God in the mind of man depicted. Psa. 14:1:

"The fool hath said in his heart. There is no God," indicates not

a disbelief in the existence, but rather in the active interest

of God in the affairs of men--He seemed to hide Himself from the

affairs of men (See Job 22:12-14).


The Scriptures further recognize that men not only know of the

existence of God, but have also a certain circle of ideas as to

who and what He is (Rom. 1:18-19).


No one but a "fool" will deny the fact of God. "What! no God? A

watch, and no key for it? A watch with a main-spring broken, and

no jeweler to fix it? A watch, and no repair shop? A time-card and

a train, and nobody to run it? A star lit, and nobody to pour oil

in to keep the wick burning? A garden, and no gardener? Flowers,

and no florist? Conditions, and no conditioner?" He that sitteth

in the heavens shall laugh at such absurd atheism.


2. THE ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.


[Footnote: A fuller and complete presentation of these arguments

for the Existence of God may be found in the works of Dr. Augustus

H. Strong and Dr. Francis L. Patten, to whom the author is here

indebted.]


These arguments may not prove conclusively that God is, but they

do show that in order to the existence of any knowledge, thought,

reason, conscience in man, we must assume that God is (Strong).

It is said of the beautiful, "It may be shown, but not proved." So

we say of the existence of God. These arguments are probable, not

demonstrative. For this reason they supplement each other, and

constitute a series of evidences which is cumulative in its nature.

Though taken singly, none of them can be considered absolutely

decisive, they together furnish a corroboration of our primitive

conviction of God's existence, which is of great practical value,

and is in itself sufficient to bind the moral actions of men. A

bundle of rods may not be broken even though each one separately

may; the strength of the bundle is the strength of the whole. If in

practical affairs we were to hesitate to act until we have absolute

and demonstrable certainty, we should never begin to move at all.


Instead of doubting everything that can be doubted, let us rather

doubt nothing until we are compelled to doubt.


Dr. Orr, of Glasgow, says: What we mean by the proof of God's

existence is simply that there are necessary acts of thought by

which we rise from the finite to the infinite, from the caused to

the uncaused, from the contingent to the necessary, from the reason

involved in the structure of the universe to a universal and eternal

reason, which is the ground of all, from morality in conscience

to a moral Lawgiver and Judge. In this connection the theoretical

proofs constitute an inseparable unity--'constitute together,'

as Dr. Stirling declares, "but the undulations of a single wave,

which wave is but a natural rise and ascent to God, on the part of

man's own thought, with man's own experience and consciousness as

the object before him."


Religion was not produced by proofs of God's existence, and will not

be destroyed by its insufficiency to some minds. Religion existed

before argument; in fact, it is the preciousness of religion that

leads to the seeking for all possible confirmations of the reality

of God.


a) Universality of Belief in the Existence of God.


(1) The fact stated and proven:


Man everywhere believes in the existence of a supreme Being or

Beings to whom he is morally responsible and to whom propitiation

needs to be made.


Such belief may be crudely, even grotesquely stated and manifested,

but the reality of the fact is no more invalidated by such crudeness

than the existence of a father is invalidated by the crude attempts

of a child to draw a picture of its father.


It has been claimed by some that there are or were tribes in

inland Africa that possessed no idea or conception of God. Moffat,

Livingstone's father-in-law, made such a claim, but Livingstone,

after a thorough study of the customs and languages of such tribes,

conclusively showed that Moffat was wrong.


Nor should the existence of such few tribes, even if granted, violate

the fact we are here considering, any more than the existence of

some few men who are blind, lame, deaf, and dumb would make untrue

the statement and fact that man is a seeing, hearing, speaking,

and walking creature. The fact that some nations do not have the

multiplication table does no violence to arithmetic.


Concerning so-called atheists in Christian lands: it may be

questioned if there are really any such beings. Hume, known as a

famous sceptic, is reported to have said to Ferguson, as together they

looked up into the starry sky: "Adam, there is a God." Voltaire,

the atheist, prayed to God in a thunderstorm. Ingersoll, when

charged with being an atheist, indignantly refuted the charge,

saying: "I am not an atheist; I do not say that there is no God;

I am an agnostic; I do not know that there is a God." "I thank God

that I am an atheist," were the opening words of an argument to

disprove the existence of God. A new convert to atheism was once

heard to say to a coterie of unbelievers: "I have gotten rid of

the idea of a supreme Being, and I thank God for it."


(2) Whence comes this universal belief in the existence of God?


aa) _Not from outside sources_, such as reason, tradition, or

even the Scriptures.


_Not from reason or argument_, for many who believe in God

have not given any time to reasoning and arguing the question; some,

indeed, intellectually, could not. Others who have great powers

of intellect, and who have reasoned and argued on the subject are

professed disbelievers in God. Belief in God is not the result of

logical arguments, else the Bible would have given us proofs.


  Nor did this universal belief come from tradition, for

"Tradition," says Dr. Patton, "can perpetuate only what has been

originated."


  Nor can it be said that this belief came from the Scriptures

even, for, as has been well said, unless a man had a knowledge

of the God from whom the Scriptures came, the Revelation itself

could have no authority for him. The very idea of Scripture as a

Revelation, presupposes belief in a God who can make it.--_Newman

Smith_. Revelation must assume the existence of God.


bb) _This universal belief comes from within man._


All the evidence points to the conclusive fact that this universal

faith in the existence of God is innate in man, and comes from

rational intuition.


(3) The weight and force of this argument.


The fact that all men everywhere believe in the existence of a

supreme Being or beings to whom they are morally responsible, is a

strong argument in favor of its truth. So universal an effect must

have a cause as universal, otherwise we have an effect without any

assignable cause. Certain is it that this argument makes the burden

of proof to rest upon those who deny the existence of God.


b) The Argument from Cause: Cosmological.


When we see a thing we naturally ask for the cause of that thing.

We see this world in which we live, and ask how it came to be. Is

it self-originating, or is the cause of its being outside of itself?

Is its cause finite or infinite?


That it could not come into being of itself seems obvious; no more

than nails, brick, mortar, wood, paints, colors, form into a house

or building of themselves; no more than the type composing a book

came into order of itself. When Liebig was asked if he believed

that the grass and flowers which he saw around him grew by mere

chemical forces, he replied: "No; no more than I could believe that

the books on botany describing them could grow by mere chemical

forces." No theory of an "eternal series" can account for this

created universe. No matter how long a chain you may have, you

must have a staple somewhere from which it depends. An endless

perpendicular chain is an impossibility. "Every house is builded

by some man," says the Bible; so this world in which we live was

built by a designing mind of infinite power and wisdom.


So is it when we consider man. Man exists; but he owes his existence

to some cause. Is this cause within or without himself, finite or

infinite? Trace our origin back, if you will, to our first parent,

Adam; then you must ask, How did he come into being? The doctrine

of the eternity of man cannot be supported. Fossil remains extend

back but 6,000 years. Man is an effect; he has not always existed.

Geology proves this. That the first Cause must have been an intelligent

Being is proven by the fact that we are intelligent beings ourselves.


c) The Argument from Design: Teleological.


A watch proves not only a maker, an artificer, but also a designer;

a watch is made for a purpose. This is evident in its structure.

A thoughtful, designing mind was back of the watch. So is it with

the world in which we live. These "ends" in nature are not to he

attributed to "natural results," or "natural selection," results

which are produced without intelligence, nor are they "the survival

of the fittest," instances in which "accident and fortuity have

done the work of mind." No, they are the results of a superintending

and originating intelligence and will.


d) The Argument from Being: Ontological.


Man has an idea of an infinite and perfect Being. From whence this

idea? From finite and imperfect beings like ourselves? Certainly

not. Therefore this idea argues for the existence of an infinite

and perfect Being: such a Being must exist, as a person, and not

a mere thought.


e) The Moral Argument; Anthropological.


Man has an intellectual and a moral nature, hence his Creator must

be an intellectual and moral Being, a Judge, and Lawgiver. Man has

an emotional nature; only a Being of goodness, power, love, wisdom

and holiness could satisfy such a nature, and these things denote

the existence of a personal God.


Conscience in man says: "Thou shalt," and "Thou shalt not," "I

ought," and "I ought not." These mandates are not self-imposed. They

imply the existence of a Moral Governor to whom we are responsible.

Conscience,--there it is in the breast of man, an ideal Moses

thundering from an invisible Sinai the Law of a holy Judge. Said

Cardinal Newman: "Were it not for the voice speaking so clearly in

my conscience and my heart, I should be an atheist, or a pantheist,

when I looked into the world." Some things are wrong, others

right: love is right, hatred is wrong. *


* [SLBC NOTE: This statement is not true. Pr 6:16 tells us that

God hates. Since that is true, then hate, in itself, cannot be intrinsically wrong.

Yes, misdirected or mishandled hate is wrong- but only because of the misdirection

or mishandling of the emotion. But, since God hates, then we cannot summarily

assert that "... hatred is wrong."]


Nor is a thing right because

it pleases, or wrong because it displeases. Where did we get this

standard of right and wrong? Morality is obligatory, not optional.

Who made is obligatory? Who has a right to command my life? We must

believe that there is a God, or believe that the very root of our

nature is a lie.


f) The Argument from Congruity.


If we have a key which fits all the wards of the lock, we know that

it is the right key. If we have a theory which fits all the facts

in the case, we know then that we have the right theory. "Belief

in a self-existent, personal God is in harmony with all the facts

of our mental and moral nature, as well as with all the phenomena

of the natural world. If God exists, a universal belief in his

existence is natural enough; the irresistible impulse to ask for

a first cause is accounted for; or religious nature has an object;

the uniformity of natural law finds an adequate explanation, and

human history is vindicated from the charge of being a vast imposture.

Atheism leaves all these matters without an explanation, and makes,

not history alone, but our moral and intellectual nature itself,

an imposture and a lie."--_Patton_.


g) The Argument from Scripture.


A great deal of our knowledge rests upon the testimony of others.

Now the Bible is competent testimony. If the testimony of travelers

is enough to satisfy us as to the habits, customs, and manners of

the peoples of the countries they visit, and which we have never

seen, why is not the Bible, if it is authentic history, be enough

to satisfy us with its evidence as to the existence of God?


Some facts need more evidence than others, we know. This is true

of the fact of the existence of God. But the Bible history is

sufficient to satisfy every reasonable demand. The history of the

Jews, prophecy, is not explainable minus God. If we cannot believe

in the existence of God on the testimony of the Bible we might

as well burn our books of history. A man cannot deny the truth of

the testimony of the Bible unless he says plainly: "No amount of

testimony will convince me of the supernatural."


Scripture does not attempt to prove the existence of God; it asserts,

assumes, and declares that the knowledge of God is universal, Rom.

1:19-21, 28, 33; 2:15. It asserts that God has wrought this great

truth in the very warp and woof of every man's being, so that

nowhere is He without this witness. The preacher may, therefore,

safely follow the example of the Scripture in assuming that there

is a God. Indeed he must unhesitatingly and explicitly assert it as

the Scripture does, believing that "His eternal power and divinity"

are things that are clearly seen and perceived through the evidences

of His handiwork which abound on every hand.


II. THE NATURE OF GOD: (Vs. Agnosticism).


1. THE SPIRITUALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Materialism). "GOD IS SPIRIT."


a) Statement of the Fact, John 4:24: "God is Spirit."


Meaning: The Samaritan woman's question, "Where is God to be found?"

etc. On Mt. Zion or Gerizim? Christ's answer: God is not to be

confined to any one place (cf. Acts 7:48; 17:25, 1 Kings 8:27). God

must be worshipped _in spirit_ as distinguished from place,

form, or other sensual limitations (4:21); and _in truth_

as distinguished from false conceptions resulting from imperfect

knowledge (4:22).


b) Light on "God is Spirit," from other Scriptures.


Luke 24:39: "A spirit hath not flesh and bones," i. e., has not

body, or parts like human beings; incorporeal; not subject to human

limitations.


Col. 1:15: "The image of the invisible God."


1 Tim. 1:17 (R. V.): "Now unto the King incorruptible, invisible."


These passages teach that God has nothing of a material or bodily

nature. Sight sees only objects of the material world, but God is

not of the nature of the material world, hence He cannot be seen

with the material eye--at least not now.


c) Light Derived from Cautions Against Representing God by Graven

Images:


Deut. 4:15-23; Isa. 40:25; Exod. 20:4. Study these passages carefully

and note that the reason why images were forbidden was because no

one had ever seen God, and consequently could not picture how He

looked, and, further, there was nothing on the earth that could

resemble Him.


d) Definition of "God is Spirit" in the Light of All This:


God is invisible, incorporeal, without parts, without body,

without passions,* and therefore free from all limitations; He is

apprehended not by the senses, but by the soul; hence God is above

sensuous perceptions. 1 Cor. 2:6-16 intimates that without the

teaching of God's Spirit we cannot know God. He is not a material

Being. "LaPlace swept the heavens with his telescope, but could

not find anywhere a God. He might just as well have swept a kitchen

with his broom." Since God is not a material Being, He cannot be

apprehended by physical means.


* [SLBC NOTE: This statement, that God is "without passions" must be

rejected because the Scriptures attribute passion and personality to God.

He hates, loves, can be grieved, feels pleasure, approval and disapproval,

sadness, and many other emotions, all of which indicate personality.

Without passions (emotions) personality could not be attributed to God;

and that would make of Him no more than the impersonal "gods" of

Hinduism, New Age, and the heretical denominations that believe God is

nothing more than an impersonal "force" rather than a personal God.

Therefore, we must reject the statement that God is "without passions."]


e) Questions and Problems with Reference to the Statement that "God

is Spirit."


(1) 'What is meant by statement that man was made "in the image of

God"?


Col 3:10; Eph. 4:24 declare that this "image" consists in "righteousness,

knowledge, and holiness of truth." By that is meant that the image

of God in man consisted in intellectual and moral likeness rather

than physical resemblance. Some think that 1 Thess. 5:23 indicates

that the "trinity of man"--body, soul, and spirit--constitutes that

image and likeness.


(2) What is meant by the anthropomorphic expressions used of God?


For example: God is said to have hands, feet, arms, eyes, ears He

sees, feels, hears, walks, etc. Such expressions are to be understood

only in the sense of being human expressions used in order to bring

the infinite within the comprehension of the finite. How otherwise

could we understand God saving by means of human expressions, in

figures that we all can understand!


(3) How are such passages as Exod. 24:10 and 33:18-23 in which it is

distinctly stated that men saw the God of Israel, to be reconciled

with such passages as John 1:18; "No man hath seen God at any time,"

and Exod. 33:20: "There shall no man see me and live"?


Answer:


_aa) Spirit can be manifested in visible form:_


John 1:32: "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove

(or in the form of a dove)." So throughout the ages the invisible

God has manifested Himself in visible form. (See Judges 6:34: The

Spirit of the Lord clothed Himself with Gideon.)


_bb) On this truth is based the doctrine of "The Angel of the

Lord"_


in the Old Testament: Gen 16:7, 10, 13. Note here how the Angel of

the Lord is identified with Jehovah Himself, cf. vv. 10, 13. Also

Gen. 22:12--"The angel of the Lord.... not withheld from _me_."

In 18:1-16, one of the three angels clearly and definitely identifies

himself with Jehovah. Compare chapter 19, where it is seen that

only two of the angels have come to Sodom; the other has remained

behind. "Who was this one, this remaining angel? Gen.18:17, 20

answers the question; v. 22 reads: "And Abraham stood yet before

the Lord. In Exod. 13:21 it is _Jehovah_, while in 14:19 it

is the Angel that went before Israel. Thus was the way prepared for

the incarnation, for the Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament is

undoubtedly the second person of the Trinity. This seems evident

from Judges 13:18 compared with Isa. 9:6, in both of which passages,

clearly referring to Christ, the name "Wonderful" occurs. Also the

omission of the definite article "the" from before the expression

"the Angel of the Lord," and the substitution of "an" points to

the same truth. This change is made in the Revised Version.


cc) _What was it then that the elders of Israel saw when it is

said they saw the "God of Israel"?_


Certainly it was not God in His real essence, God as He is in

Himself, for no man can have that vision and live. John 1:18 is

clear on that point: "No man hath seen God at any time." The emphasis

in this verse is on the word "God," and may read, "GOD no one has

seen at any time." In 5:37 Jesus says: "Ye have neither heard his

voice at any time, nor seen his shape." From This it seems clear

that the "seeing" here, the which has been the privilege of no man,

refers to the essence rather than to the person of God, if such

a distinction can really be made. This is apparent also from the

omission of the definite article before God, as well as from the

position of God in the sentence. None but the Son has really seen

God as God, as He really is. What, then, did these men see?


Evidently an _appearance_ of God in some form to their outward

senses; perhaps the form of a man, seeing mention is made of his

"feet." The vision may have been too bright for human eyes to gaze

upon fully, but it was _a_ vision of God. Yet it was only a

manifestation of God, for, although Moses was conversing with God,

he yet said: "If I have found grace in thy sight, show me thy face."

Moses had been granted exceeding great and precious privileges in

that he had been admitted into close communion with God, more so

than any other member of the human race. But still unsatisfied he

longed for more; so in v. 18 he asks to see the unveiled glory of

God, that very thing which no man in the flesh can ever see and

live; but, no, this cannot be. By referring to Exod. 33:18-23 we

find God's answer: "Thou canst not see my face.... thou shalt see

my back parts, but my face shall not be seen." (Num. 12:8 throws

light upon the subject, if compared with Exod. 33:11.)


"The secret remained unseen; the longing unsatisfied; and the

nearest approach to the beatific vision reached by him with whom

God spake face to face, as friend with friend, was to be hidden in

the cleft of the rock, to be made aware of an awful shadow, and to

hear the voice of the unseen."


2. THE PERSONALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Pantheism).


Pantheism maintains that this universe in its ever changing conditions

is but the manifestation of the one ever changing universal substance

which is God; thus all, everything is God, and God is everything;

God is all, all is God. Thus God is identified with nature and not

held to be independent of and separate from it. God is, therefore,

a necessary but an unconscious force working in the world.


The Bearing of the Personality of God on the Idea of Religion.


True religion may be defined as the communion between two persons:

God and man. religion is a personal relationship between God in

heaven, and man on the earth. If God were not a person there could

be no communion; if both God and man were one there could be no

communion, and, consequently, no religion. An independent personal

relationship on both sides is absolutely necessary to communion.

Man can have no communion with an influence, a force, an impersonal

something; nor can an influence have any moving or affection towards

man. It is absolutely necessary to the true definition of religion

that both God and man be persons. God is person, not force or

influence.


a) Definition of Personality.


Personality exists where there is intelligence, mind, will,

reason, individuality, self-consciousness, and self-determination.

There must be not mere consciousness--for the beast has that--but

_self_-consciousness. Nor is personality determination--for the

beast has this, too, even though this determination be the result

of influences from without--but _self_-determination, the power

by which man from an act of his own free will determines his acts

from within.


Neither corporeity nor substance, as we understand these words,

are necessarily, if at all, involved in personality. There may be

true personality without either or both of these.


b) Scripture Teaching on the Personality of God.


(In this connection it will Be well to refer to the Ontological

Argument for the Existence of God, for which see p. 17.)


(1) Exod 3:14;--"I AM THAT I AM."


This name is wonderfully significant. Its central idea is that of

existence and personality. The words signify "I AM, I WAS, I SHALL

BE," so suggestively corresponding with the New Testament statement

concerning God: "Who wast, and art, and art to come."


All the names given to God in the Scripture denote personality.

Here are some of them:


Jehovah--Jireh: The Lord will provide (Gen. 22:13, 14).


Jehovah-Rapha: The Lord that healeth (Exod. 15:26).


Jehovah-Nissi: The Lord our Banner (Exod. 17:8-15).


Jehovah-Shalom: The Lord our Peace (Judges 6:24).


Jehovah-Ra-ah: The Lord my Shepherd (Psa. 23:1).


Jehovah-Tsidkenu: The Lord our Righteousness (Jer. 23:6).


Jehovah-Shammah: The Lord is present (Ezek. 48:35).


Moreover, the personal pronouns ascribed to God prove personality:

John 17:3, et al. "To know thee"--we cannot know an influence in

the sense in which the word know is here used. _Statement:_

All through the Scriptures names and personal pronouns are ascribed

to God which undeniably prove that God is a Person.


(2) A sharp distinction is drawn in the Scriptures between the gods

of heathen and the Lord God of Israel (See Jer. 10:10-16).


Note the context: vv. 3-9: Idols are things, not persons; they

cannot walk, speak, do good or evil. God is wiser than the men who

made these idols; if the idol-makers are persons, much more is God.


See the sharp contrast drawn between dead idols and the living,

personal, true and only God: Acts 14:15; 1 Thess. 1:9; Psa. 94:9,

10.


_Statement:_ God is to be clearly distinguished from things

which have no life; he is a living Person.


(3) Attributes of personality are ascribed to God in the Scriptures.


God repents (Gen. 6:6}; grieves {Gen 6:6}; is angry {1 Kings 11:9);

is jealous (Deut. 6:15); loves (Rev. 3:19); hates (Prov. 6:16).


_Statement_: God possesses the attributes of personality, and

therefore is a Person.


(4) The relation which God bears to the Universe and to Men, as set

forth in the Scriptures, can be explained only on the basis that

God is a Person.


Deism maintains that God, while the Creator of the world, yet sustains

no further relations to it. He made it just as the clock-maker makes

a self-winding clock: makes it and then leaves it to run itself

without any interference on His part. Such teaching as this finds

no sanction in the Bible. What are God's relations to the universe

and to men?


_aa) He is the Creator of the Universe and Man._


Gen. 1:1, 26; John. 1:1-3. These verses contain vital truths. The

universe did not exist from eternity, nor was it made from existing

matter. It did not proceed as an emanation from the infinite, but

was summoned into being by the decree of God. Science, by disclosing

to us the marvelous power and accuracy of natural law, compels

us to believe in a superintending intelligence who is infinite.

Tyndall said: "I have noticed that it is not during the hours of my

clearness and vigor that the doctrine of material atheism commends

itself to my mind."


(In this connection the Arguments from Cause and Design, pp. 16

and 17, may be properly considered.)


_Statement_: The Creation of the Universe and Man proves the

Personality of the Creator--God.


_bb) God sustains certain relations to the Universe and Man which

He has made._


Heb 1:3--"Uphold all things." Col. 1:15-17--"By him all things hold

together." Psa. 104:27-30--All creatures wait upon Him for "their

meat in due season." Psa. 75:6, 7--"Promotion" among men, the

putting down of one man and the setting up of another, is from the

hand of God.


What do we learn from these scriptures regarding the relation of

God to this universe, to man, and to all God's creatures?


_First_. That all things are held together by Him; if not, this

old world would go to pieces quickly. The uniformity and accuracy

of natural law compels us to believe in a personal God who

intelligently guides and governs the universe. Disbelief in this

fact would mean utter confusion. Not blind chance, but a personal

God is at the helm.


_Second._ That the physical supplies for all God's creatures

are in His hand: He feeds them all. What God gives we gather. If

He withholds provision we die.


_Third._ That God has His hand in history, guiding and shaping

the affairs of nations. Victor Hugo said: "Waterloo was God."


_Fourth._ Consider with what detail God's care is described:

The sparrows, the lilies, the hairs of the head, the tears of His

children, etc. See how these facts are clearly portrayed in the

following scriptures: Matt. 6:28-30; 10:29, 30; Gen. 39:21, with

50:20; Dan. 1:9; Job 1:12.


_Statement:_ The personality of God is shown by His active,

interest and participation all things, even the smallest things,

in the universe, the experience of man, and in the life of all His

creatures.


THE UNITY OF GOD: (Vs. Polytheism).


There are three monotheistic religions in the world: Judaism,

Christianity, and Mahommedanism. The second is a development of

the first; the third is an outgrowth of both.


The doctrine of the Unity of God is held in contradistinction

to _Polytheism_, which is belief in a multiplicity of gods;

_Tri-theism_, which teaches that there are three Gods--that

is, that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are, specifically,

three distinct Gods; and to _Dualism_, which teaches that

there are two independent divine beings or eternal principles, the

one good, and the other evil, as set forth especially in Gnostic

systems, such as Parseeism.


a) The Scriptures Assert the Unity of God.


Deut. 6:4--"Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord"; or, "The

Lord our God, the Lord is one." Isa. 44:6-8--"First.... last....

beside me there is no God." Isa. 45:5--"There is none else,

there is no God beside me." 1 Tim. 2:5 "There is one God." 1 Cor.

8:4--"There is none other God but one."


That God is one, that there is no other, that He has no equal is

the forceful testimony of above fifty passages in the Scriptures.

The fundamental duty of life, namely, the devotion of the entire

being to the Lord, is based upon the Unity of God: "The Lord....is

one .... therefore thou shalt love the Lord thy God with _all_

thy heart," etc.


No other truth of the Scripture, particularly of the Old Testament,

receives more prominence than that of the Unity of God. This

truth is clearly pronounced also in the material universe; it is

the introduction and conclusion of all scientific researches. Any

other representation contradicts both creation and revelation. Its

denial is a proper object for the ridicule of every thinking man,

and of the disbelief of every orthodox Christian. Let this, then,

be our first and necessary conclusion--that Deity, whether creating,

inspiring, or otherwise manifesting itself, is one God; one, and

no more.--_Cerdo._


A multiplication of Gods is a contradiction; there can be but one

God. There can be but one absolutely perfect, supreme, and almighty

Being. Such a Being cannot be multiplied, nor pluralized. There

can be but one ultimate, but one all-inclusive, but one God.


Monotheism, then, not Tri-theism, is the doctrine set forth in the

Scriptures. "If the thought that wishes to be orthodox had less

tendency to become tri-theistic, the thought that claims to be free

would be less Unitarian."--_Moberly._


b) The Nature of the Divine Unity.


The doctrine of the Unity of God does not exclude the idea of

a plurality of persons in the Godhead. Not that there are three

persons in each person of the Godhead, if we use in both cases

the term _person_ in one and the same sense. We believe,

therefore, that there are three persons in the Godhead, but one

God. Anti-trinitarians represent the evangelical church as believing

in three Gods, but this is not true; it believes in one God, but

three persons in the Godhead.


(1) The Scriptural use of the word "One."


Gen. 2:24--"And they two (husband and wife) shall be one flesh."

Gen. 11:6--"The people is one." I Cor. 3:6-8--"He that planteth

and he that watereth are one." 12:13--"All baptized into one body."

John 17:22, 23--"That they may be one, even as we are one ... that

they may be made perfect in one."


The word "one" in these scriptures is used in a collective sense;

the unity here spoken of is a compound one, like unto that used in

such expressions as "a cluster of grapes," or "all the people rose

as one man." The unity of the Godhead is not simple but compound.

The Hebrew word for "one" (yacheed) in the absolute sense, and which

is used in such expressions as "the only one," is _never_ used

to express the unity of the Godhead. On the contrary, the Hebrew

word "echad," meaning "one" in the sense of a compound unity,

as seen in the above quoted scriptures, is the one used always to

describe the divine unity.


(2) The Divine Name "God" is a plural word; plural pronouns are

used of God.


The Hebrew word for God (Elohim) is used most frequently in the

plural form. God often uses plural pronouns in speaking of Himself,

e. g., Gen. 1:26--"Let _us_ make man." Isa. 6:8-"Who will go for

_us_?" Gen. 3:22--Behold, man is become as "one of _us_."


Some would say that the "us" in Gen. 1:26--"Let us make man," refers

to God's consultation with the angels with whom He takes counsel

before He does anything of importance; but Isa. 40:14--"But of

whom took he counsel," shows that such is not the case; and Gen.

1:27 contradicts this idea, for it repeats the statement "in the

image of God," not in the image of angels; also that "GOD created

man in HIS OWN image, in the image of God (not angels) created he

him." The "us" of Gen. 1:26, therefore, is properly understood of

plural majesty, as indicating the dignity and majesty of the speaker.

The proper translation of this verse should be not "let us make,"

but "we will make," indicating the language of resolve rather than

that of consultation.


4. THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY: (Vs. Unitarianism).


The doctrine of the Trinity is, in its last analysis, a deep mystery

that cannot be fathomed by the finite mind. That it is taught

in the Scripture, however, there can be no reasonable doubt. It

is a doctrine to be believed even though it cannot be thoroughly

understood.


a) The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament.


This doctrine is not so much declared as intimated in the Old

Testament. The burden of the Old Testament message seems to be the

unity of God. Yet the doctrine of the Trinity is clearly intimated

in a four-fold way:


First: In the plural names of the Deity; e. g., Elohim.


Second: Personal pronouns used of the Deity. Gen. 1:26; 11:7;

Isa.6:8.


Third: The Theophanies, especially the "Angel of the Lord." Gen.16

and 18.


Fourth: The work of the Holy Spirit. Gen. 1:2; Judges 6:34.


b) The Doctrine of the Trinity in the New Testament.


The doctrine of the Trinity is clearly taught in the New Testament;

it is not merely intimated, as in the Old Testament, but explicitly

declared. This is evident from the following:


First: The baptism of Christ: Matt 3:16, 17. Here the Father speaks

from heaven; the Son is being baptized in the Jordan; and the Spirit

descends in the form of a dove.


Second: In the Baptismal Formula: Matt. 28:19--"Baptizing them in

the name (sing.) of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy

Ghost." Third: The Apostolic Benediction: 2 Cor. 13:14--"The grace

of our Lord Jesus Christ....love of God.....communion of the Holy

Ghost."


Fourth: Christ Himself teaches it in John 14:16--"_I_ will

pray the _Father_... He will give you another _Comforter_."


Fifth: The New Testament sets forth:


A Father who is God, Rom. 1:7.

A son who is God, Heb. 1:8.

A Holy Spirit who is God, Acts 5:3, 4.


The whole is summed up in the words of Boardman: The Father is all

the fulness of the Godhead invisible, John 1:18; the Son is all

the fulness of Godhead manifested, John 1:4-18; the Spirit is all

the fulness of the Godhead acting immediately upon the creature,

1 Cor. 2:9, 10.


III. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD:


It is difficult to clearly distinguish between the attributes and

the nature of God. It is maintained by some that such a division

ought not to be made; that these qualities of God which we call

attributes are in reality part of His nature and essence. Whether

this be exactly so or not, our purpose in speaking of the attributes

of God is for convenience in the study of the doctrine of God.


It has been customary to divide the attributes of God into two classes:

the Natural, and the Moral. The Natural attributes are Omniscience,

Omnipotence, Omnipresence, Eternity; the Moral attributes: Holiness,

Righteousness, Faithfulness, Mercy and Loving-kindness, and Love.


1. THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES:


a) The Omniscience of God.


God Is a Spirit, and as such has knowledge. He is a perfect Spirit,

and as such has perfect knowledge. By Omniscience is meant that

God knows all things and is absolutely perfect in knowledge.


(1) Scriptures setting forth the fact of God's Omniscience.


_In general:_ Job 11:7, 8--"Canst thou by searching find

out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?" Job's

friends professed to have discovered the reason for his affliction,

for, forsooth, had they not found out the secrets of the divine

wisdom unto perfection. No, such is beyond their human, finite ken.

Isa. 40:28--"There is no searching of his understanding." Jacob's

captive condition might lead him to lose trust and faith in God.

But Jacob has not seen all God's plans--no man has. Job, 37:16--"The

wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge." Could Job

explain the wonders of the natural phenomena around him? Much less

the purposes and judgments of God. Psa. 147:5--"His understanding

is infinite." Of His understanding there is no number, no computation.

Israel is not lost sight of. He who can number and name and call

the stars is able also to call each of them by name even out of

their captivity. His knowledge is not to be measured by ours. 1 John

3:20--"God knoweth all things." Our hearts may pass over certain

things, and fail to see some things that should be confessed. God,

however, sees all things. Rom. 11:33--"How unsearchable are his

judgments and his ways past finding out." The mysterious purposes

and decrees of God touching man and his salvation are beyond all

human comprehension.


_In detail, and by way of illustration:_


_aa) His knowledge is absolutely comprehensive:_


Prov. 15:3--"The eyes of the Lord are in every place, keeping

watch upon the evil and the good." How could He reward and punish

otherwise? Not one single thing occurring in any place escapes His

knowledge. 5:21--"For the ways of man are before the eyes of the

Lord, and he pondereth all his goings." We may have habits hidden

from our fellow creatures, but not from God.


_ bb) God has a perfect knowledge of all that is in nature:_


Psa. 147:4--"He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them

all by their names." Man cannot (Gen. 15:5). How, then, can Israel

say, "My way is hid from the Lord?" Cf. Isa. 40:26, 27. Matt.

10:29--"One ... sparrow shall not fall to the ground without your

Father." Much less would one of His children who perchance might

be killed for His name's sake, fall without His knowledge.


_cc) God has a perfect knowledge of all that transpires in human

experience:_


Prov. 5:21--"For the ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord,

and he pondereth all his goings." All a man's doings are weighed

by God. How this should affect his conduct! Psa. 139:2, 3--"Thou

knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my

thought afar off. Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and

art acquainted with all my ways." Before our thoughts are fully

developed, our unspoken sentences, the rising feeling in our hearts,

our activity, our resting, all that we do from day to day is known

and sifted by God. v. 4--"There is not a word in my tongue, but

lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether." Not only thoughts and

purposes, but words spoken, idle, good, or bad. Exod. 3:7--"I

have seen the affliction....heard the cry: know the sorrows of my

people which are in Egypt." The tears and grief which they dared

not show to their taskmasters, God saw and noted. Did God know

of their trouble in Egypt? It seemed to them as though He did not.

But He did. Matt. 10:29, 30--"But the very hairs of your head are

all numbered." What minute knowledge is this! Exod 3:19--"And I am

sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty

hand." Here is intimate knowledge as to what a single individual

will do. Isa. 48:18--"O that thou hadst harkened to my commandments!

then had thy peace have been as a river," etc. God knows what our

lives would have been if only we had acted and decided differently.


_dd) God has a perfect knowledge of all that transpires in human

history._


With what precision are national changes and destinies foretold

and depicted in Dan. 2 and 8! Acts 15:18--"Known unto God are all

his works from the beginning of the world (ages)." In the context

surrounding this verse are clearly set forth the religious changes

that were to characterize the generations to come, the which have

been so far literally, though not fully, fulfilled.


_ee) God knows--from, all eternity to all eternity what will take

place._


The omniscience of God is adduced as the proof that He alone is

God, especially as contrasted with the gods (idols) of the heathen:

Isa. 48:5-8--"I have even from the beginning declared it unto thee;

before it came to pass I showed it thee.....I have showed thee

new things from this time, even hidden things," etc. 46:9, 10--"I

am God....declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient

times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall

stand, and I will do all my pleasure." Here God is announcing to

His prophets things that are to occur in the future which it is

impossible for the human understanding to know or reach. There is

no past, present, future with God. Everything is one great living

present. We are like a man standing by a river in a low place, and

who, consequently, can see that part of the river only that passes

by him; but he who is aloof in the air may see the whole course of

the river, how it rises, and how it runs. Thus is it with God.


(2) Certain problems in connection with the doctrine of the Omniscience

of God.


How the divine intelligence can comprehend so vast and multitudinous

and exhaustless a number of things must forever surpass our

comprehension. "O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and

knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his

ways past finding out!" (Rom. 11:33). "There is no searching of

his understanding; it is beyond human computation." We must expect,

therefore, to stand amazed in the presence of such matchless wisdom,

and find problems in connection therewith which must for the time,

at least, remain unsolved.


Again, we must not confound the foreknowledge of God with

His foreordination. The two things are, in a sense, distinct. The

fact that God foreknows a thing makes that thing certain but not

necessary. His foreordination is based upon His foreknowledge.

Pharaoh was responsible for the hardening of his heart even though

that hardening process was foreknown and foretold by God. The

actions of men are considered certain but not necessary by reason

of the divine foreknowledge.


b) The Omnipotence of God.


The Omnipotence of God is that attribute by which He can bring to

pass everything which He wills. God's power admits of no bounds

or limitations. God's declaration of His intention is the pledge

of the thing intended being carried out. "Hath he said, and shall

he not do it?"


(1) Scriptural declarations of the fact; In general:


Job 42:2.(R. V.)--"I know that thou canst do everything (all things),

and that no purpose of thine can be restrained." The mighty review

of all God's works as it passes before Job (context) brings forth

this confession: "There is no resisting thy might, and there is no

purpose thou canst not carry out." Gen. 18:14--"Is anything too

hard for the Lord?" What had ceased to be possible by natural means

comes to pass by supernatural means.


(2) Scriptural declaration of the fact; In detail:


_aa) In the world of nature:_


Gen. 1:1-3--"God created the heaven and the earth. And God said,

Let there be light, and there was light." Thus "he spake and it was

done. He commanded and it stood fast." He does not need even to give

His hand to the work; His word is sufficient. Psa. 107:25-29--"He

raiseth the stormy wind ... he maketh the storm calm." "Even the

winds and the sea obey him." God's slightest word, once uttered, is

a standing law to which all nature must absolutely conform. Nahum

1:5, 6--"The mountains quake at him ... the hills melt ... the

earth is burned at his presence ... the rocks are thrown down by

him." If such is His power how shall Assyria withstand it? This is

God's comforting message to Israel. Everything in the sky, in sea,

on earth is absolutely subject to His control.


_bb) In the experience of mankind:_


How wonderfully this is illustrated in the experience of Nebuchadnezzar,

Dan. 4; and in the conversion of Saul, Acts 9; as well as in the

case of Pharaoh, Exod. 4:11. James 4:12-15--" ... For that ye ought

to say, If the Lord will, we shall live and do this or that." All

human actions, whether present or future, are dependent upon the

will and power of God. These things are in God's, not in man's,

power. See also the parable of the Rich Fool, Luke 12:16-21.


_cc) The heavenly inhabitants are subject to His will and word:_


Dan. 4:35 (R. V.)--"He doeth according to his will in the army of

heaven." Heb. 1:14--"Are they (angels) not all ministering spirits,

sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?"

It has been said that angels are beings created by the power of

God for some specific act of service, and that after that act of

service is rendered they pass out of existence.


_dd) Even Satan is under the control of God_


Satan has no power over any of God's children saving as God permits

him to have. This fact is clearly established in the case of Job

(1:12 and 2:6). and Peter (Luke 22:31,32), in which we are told

that Satan had petitioned God that he might sift the self-righteous

patriarch and the impulsive apostle. Finally Satan is to be forever

bound with a great chain (Rev. 20:2). God can set a bar to the

malignity of Satan just as he can set a bar to the waves of the

sea.


c) The Omnipresence of God.


By the Omnipresence of God is meant that God is everywhere

present. This attribute is closely connected with the omniscience

and omnipotence of God, for if God is everywhere present He is

everywhere active and possesses full knowledge of all that transpires

in every place.


This does not mean that God is everywhere present in a bodily sense,

nor even in the same sense; for there is a sense in which He may

be in heaven, His dwelling place, in which He cannot be said to be

elsewhere. We must guard against the pantheistic idea which claims

that God _is_ everything, while maintaining the Scriptural

doctrine that He is everywhere present in all things. Pantheism

emphasizes the omnipresent activity of God, but denies His

personality. Those holding the doctrine of pantheism make loud

claims to philosophic ability and high intellectual training, but

is it not remarkable that it is in connection with this very phase

of the doctrine of God that the Apostle Paul says "they became

fools"? (Rom. 1.) God is everywhere and in every place; His center

is everywhere; His circumference nowhere. But this presence is a

spiritual and not a material presence; yet it is a real presence.


(1) Scriptural statement of the fact.


Jer. 23:23, 24-"Am I a God at hand, saith the Lord, and not a God

afar off? Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not

see him? saith the Lord. Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith

the Lord." Did the false prophets think that they could hide their

secret crimes from God? Or that He could not pursue them into

foreign countries? Or that He knew what was transpiring in heaven

only and not upon the earth, and even in its most distant corners?

It was false for them to thus delude themselves--their sins would

be detected and punished (Psa. 10:1-14).


Psa. 139:7-12--"Whither shall I go from thy Spirit, or whither shall

I flee from thy presence," etc. How wondrously the attributes of

God are grouped in this psalm. In vv. 1-6 the psalmist speaks of

the omniscience of God: God knows him through and through. In vv.

13-19 it is the omnipotence of God which overwhelms the psalmist.

The omnipresence of God is set forth in vv. 7-12. The psalmist

realizes that he is never out of the sight of God any more than

he is outside of the range of His knowledge and power. God is in

heaven; "Hell is naked before Him"; souls in the intermediate state

are fully known to Him (cf. Job 26:2; Jonah 2:2); the darkness is

as the light to Him. Job 22:12-14--"Is not God in the height of

heaven? . . . . Can he judge through the dark cloud? Thick clouds

are a covering to him that he seeth not," etc. All agreed that God

displayed His presence in the heaven, but Job had inferred from this

that God could not know and did not take notice of such actions of

men as were hidden behind the intervening clouds. Not that Job

was atheistic; no, but probably denied to God the attribute of

omnipresence and omniscience. Acts 17:24-28--"For in him we live,

and move, and have our being." Without His upholding hand we must

perish; God is our nearest environment. From these and many other

scriptures we are clearly taught that God is everywhere present

and acting; there is no place where God is not.


This does not mean that God is everywhere present in the same sense.

For we are told that He is in heaven, His dwelling-place (1 Kings

8:30); that Christ is at His right hand in heaven (Eph. 1:20);

that God's throne is in heaven (Rev. 21:2; Isa. 66:1).


We may summarize the doctrine of the Trinity thus: God the Father

is specially manifested in heaven; God the Son has been specially

manifested on the earth; God the Spirit is manifested everywhere.


Just as the soul is present in every part of the body so God is

present in every part of the world.


(2) Some practical inferences from this doctrine.


First, _of Comfort:_ The nearness of God to the believer.

"Speak to Him then for He listens. And spirit with spirit can meet;

Closer is He than breathing, And nearer than hands or feet."


"God is never so far off, As even to be near; He is within. Our

spirit is the home He holds most dear. To think of Him as by our

side is almost as untrue, As to remove His shrine beyond those

skies of starry blue."--_Faber._ The omnipresence is not only

a detective truth--it is protective also. After dwelling on this

great and awful attribute in Psalm 139, the psalmist, in vv. 17,

18, exclaims: "How precious are thy thoughts to me..... When I

awake I am still with thee." By this is meant that God stands by

our side to help, and as One who loves and understands us (Matt.

28:20).


Second, _of Warning:_ "As in the Roman empire the whole world

was one great prison to a malefactor, and in his flight to the most

distant lands the emperor could track him, so under the government

of God no sinner can escape the eye of the judge." Thus the

omnipresence of God is detective as well as protective. "Thou God

seest me," should serve as warning to keep us from sin.


d) The Eternity and Immutability of God.


The word _eternal_ is used in two senses in the Bible:

figuratively, as denoting existence which may have a beginning,

but will have no end, e. g., angels, the human soul; literally,

denoting an existence which has neither beginning nor ending,

like that of God. Time has past, present, future; eternity has

not. Eternity is infinite duration without any beginning, end, or

limit--an ever abiding present. We can conceive of it only as duration

indefinitely extended from the present moment in two directions--as

to the past and as to the future. "One of the deaf and dumb pupils

in the institution of Paris, being desired to express his idea

of the eternity of the Deity, replied: 'It is duration, without

beginning or end; existence, without bounds or dimension; present,

without past or future. His eternity is youth, without infancy or

old age; life, without birth or death; today, without yesterday or

tomorrow.'"


By the Immutability of God is meant that God's nature is absolutely

unchangeable. It is not possible that He should possess one attribute

at one time that He does not possess at another. Nor can there be

any change in the Deity for better or for worse. God remains forever

the same. He is without beginning and without end; the self-existent

"I am"; He remains forever the same, and unchangeable.


(1) Scriptural statement of the fact: The Eternity of God


Hab. 1:12--"Art thou not from everlasting, O Lord my God, mine Holy

One?" Chaldea had threatened to annihilate Israel. The prophet

cannot believe it possible, for has not God _eternal_ purposes

for Israel? Is He not holy? How, then, can evil triumph? Psa.

90:2--"Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst

formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting,

thou art God." Short and transitory is the life of man; with God

it is otherwise. The perishable nature of man is here compared with

the imperishable nature of God. Psa. 102:24-27--"I said, O my God,

take me not away in the midst of my days: thy years are throughout

all generations. Of old thou hast laid the foundations of the earth:

and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but

thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment;

as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed.

But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end." With

the perishable nature of the whole material creation the psalmist

contrasts the imperishable nature of God. Exod. 3:14--"And God

said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM." The past, present and future lies

in these words for the name of Jehovah. Rev. 1:8--"I am Alpha and

Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and

which was, and which is to come, the Almighty."


(2) Scriptural statement of the Immutability of God:


Mal 3:6--"1 am the Lord, I change not." Man's hope lies in that

fact, as the context here shows Man had changed in his life and

purpose toward God, and if God, like man, had changed, man would

have been destroyed. James 1:17--"The Father of lights, with whom is

no variableness, neither shadow of turning." There is no change--in

the sense of the degree or intensity of light such as is manifested

in the heavenly bodies. Such lights are constantly varying

and changing; not so with God. There is no inherent, indwelling,

possible change in God. 1 Sam. 15:29.--"And also the Strength of

Israel will not lie nor repent: for he is not a man, that he should

repent." From these scriptures we assert that God, in His nature

and character, is absolutely without change.


Does God Repent?


What, then, shall we say with regard to such scriptures as Jonah

3:10 and Gen. 6:6--"And God repented of the evil, that he said he

would do unto them." "And it repented the Lord that he had made

man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart." In reply we may

say that God does not change, but threatens that men may change.

"The repentent attitude in God does not involve any real change in

the character and purposes of God. He ever hates the sin and ever

pities and loves the sinner; that is so both before and after

the sinner's repentance. Divine repentance is therefore the same

principle acting differently in altered circumstances. If the

prospect of punishment answers the same purpose as that intended

by the punishment itself, then there is no inconsistency in

its remission, for punishment is not an end, it is only a means

to goodness, to the reign of the law of righteousness." When God

appears to be displeased with anything, or orders it differently

from what we expected, we say, after the manner of men, that

He repents. God's attitude towards the Ninevites had not changed,

but they had changed; and because they had changed from sin unto

righteousness, God's attitude towards them and His intended dealings

with them as sinners must of necessity change, while, of course,

God's character had in no wise changed with respect to these

people, although His dealings with them had. So that we may say

that God's _character_ never changes, but His _dealings_

with men change as they change from ungodliness to godliness and

from disobedience unto obedience. "God's immutability is not that

of the stone, that has no internal experience, but rather that of

the column of mercury that rises and falls with every change in

the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere. When a man bicycling

against the wind turns about and goes with the wind instead of going

against it, the wind seems to change, although it is blowing just

as it was before." --_Strong_.


2. THE MORAL ATTRIBUTES.


a) The Holiness of God.


If there is any difference in importance in the attributes of God,

that of His Holiness seems to occupy the first place. It is, to

say the least, the one attribute which God would have His people

remember Him by more than any other. In the visions of Himself

which God granted men in the Scriptures the thing that stood out

most prominent was the divine holiness. This is clearly seen by

referring to the visions of Moses, Job, and Isaiah. Some thirty

times does the Prophet Isaiah speak of Jehovah as "the Holy One,"

thus indicating what feature of those beatific visions had most

impressed him.


The holiness of God is the message of the entire Old Testament.

To the prophets God was the absolutely Holy One; the One with eyes

too pure to behold evil; the One swift to punish iniquity. In taking

a photograph, the part of the body which we desire most to see is

not the hands or feet, but the face. So is it with our vision of

God. He desires us to see not His hand and finger, denoting His

power and skill, nor even His throne as indicating His majesty.

It is His holiness by which He desires to be remembered as that is

the attribute which most glorifies Him. Let us bear this fact in

mind as we study this attribute of the divine nature. It is just

this vision of God that we need today when the tendency to deny

the reality or the awfulness of sin is so prevalent. Our view of

the necessity of the atonement will depend very largely upon our

view of the holiness of God. Light views of God and His holiness

will produce light views of sin and the atonement.


(1) Scriptural statements setting forth the fact of God's Holiness.


Isa. 57:15--"Thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth

eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place."

Psa. 99:9--"Exalt the Lord our God, and worship at his holy hill:

for the Lord our God is holy." Hab. 1:13--"Thou art of purer eyes

than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity." 1 Pet. 1:15,

16 --"But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in

all manner of conversation. Because it is written, Be ye holy: for

I am holy." God's personal name is holy. John 17:11--"Holy Father,

keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me." Christ

here contemplates the Father as the Holy One, as the source and

agent of that which He desires for His disciples, namely, holiness

of heart and life, being kept from the evil of this world.


Is it not remarkable that this attribute of holiness is ascribed

to each of the three persons of the Trinity: God the Father, is

the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 41:14); God the Son is the Holy One

(Acts 3:14); God the Spirit is called the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30).


(2) The Scriptural meaning of Holiness as applied to God.


Job 34:10--"Be it far from God, that he should do wickedness; and

from the Almighty that he should commit iniquity." An evil God,

one that could commit evil would be a contradiction in terms,

an impossible, inconceivable idea. Job seemed to doubt that the

principle on which the universe was conducted was one of absolute

equity. He must know that God is free from all evil-doing. However

hidden the meaning of His dealings, He is always just. God never

did, never will do wrong to any of His creatures; He will never

punish wrongly. Men may, yea, often do; God never does. Lev.

11:43-45--"Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping

thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with

them, that ye should be defiled thereby. For I am the Lord your

God; ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy;

for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner

of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.... Ye shall therefore

be holy, for I am holy." This means that God is absolutely clean

and pure and free from all defilement.


The construction of the Tabernacle, with its holy and most holy

place into which the high priest alone entered once a year; the Ten

Commandments, with their moral categories; the laws of clean and

unclean animals and things--all these speak to us in unmistakable

terms as to what is meant by holiness as applied to God.


Two things, by way of definition, may be inferred from these

Scriptures: first, negatively, that God is entirely apart from

all that is evil and from all that defiles both in Himself and in

relation to all His creatures; second and positively, by the holiness

of God is meant the consummate holiness, perfection, purity, and

absolute sanctity of His nature. There is absolutely nothing unholy

in Him. So the Apostle John declares: "God is light, and in him

is no darkness at all."


(3) The manifestation of God's Holiness.


Prov. 15:9, 26--"The way of the wicked is an abomination unto the

Lord. The thoughts of the wicked are an abomination unto the Lord."

God hates sin, and is its uncompromising foe. Sin is a vile and

detestable thing to God. Isa. 59:1, 2--"Behold, the Lord's hand

is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that

it cannot hear. But your iniquities have separated between you and

your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will

not hear." Israel's sin had raised a partition wall. The infinite

distance between the sinner and God is because of sin. The sinner

and God are at opposite poles of the moral universe. This in answer

to Israel's charge of God's inability. From these two scriptures

it is clear that God's holiness manifests itself in the hatred of

sin and the separation of the sinner from himself.


Herein lies the need of the atonement, whereby this awful distance

is bridged over. This is the lesson taught by the construction of

the Tabernacle as to the division into the holy place and the most

holy place.


Prov. 15:9--"But he loveth him that followeth after righteousness."

John 3:16--"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only

begotten Son," etc. Here God's holiness is seen in that He loves

righteousness in the life of His children to such a degree that He

gave His only begotten Son to secure it. The Cross shows how much

God loves holiness. The Cross stands for God's holiness before even

His love. For Christ died not merely for our sins, but in order

that He might provide us with that righteousness of life which

God loves. "He died that we might be forgiven; he died to make us

good." Do we love holiness to the extent of sacrificing for it?


For other manifestations see under Righteousness and Justice of

God.


(4) Practical deductions from the doctrine of God's Holiness.


First, we should approach God with "reverence and godly fear"

(Heb. 12:28). In the story of Moses' approach to the burning bush,

the smiting of the men at Bethshemesh, the boundary set about Mt.

Sinai, we are taught to feel our own unworthiness. There is too

much hilarity in our approach unto God. Eccl. 5:1-3 inculcates

great care in our address to God.


Second, we shall have right views of sin when we get right views

of God's holiness. Isaiah, the holiest man in all Israel, was cast

down at the sight of his own sin after he had seen the vision of

God's holiness. The same thing is true of Job (40:3-4; 42:4-5).

We confess sin in such easy and familiar terms that it has almost

lost its terror for us.


Third, that approach to a holy God must be through the merits

of Christ, and on the ground of a righteousness which is Christ's

and which naturally we do not possess. Herein lies the need of the

atonement.


b) The Righteousness and Justice of God.


In a certain sense these attributes are but the manifestation of

God's holiness. It is holiness as manifested in dealing with the

sons of men. Holiness has to do more particularly with the character

of God in itself, while in Righteousness and Justice that character

is expressed in the dealings of God with men. Three things may be

said in the consideration of the Righteousness and Justice of God:

first, there is the imposing of righteousness laws and demands,

which may he called legislative holiness, and may he known as the

Righteousness of God; second, there is the executing of the penalties

attached to those laws, which may be called judicial holiness; third,

there is the sense in which the attributes of the Righteousness

and Justice of God may be regarded as the actual carrying out of

the holy nature of God in the government of the world. So that in

the Righteousness of God we have His love of holiness, and in the

Justice of God, His hatred of sin.


Again Righteousness, as here used, has reference to the very nature

of God as He is in Himself--that attribute which leads God always

to do right. Justice, as an attribute of God, is devoid of all

passion or caprice; it is vindicative not vindictive. And so the

Righteousness and Justice of the God of Israel was made to stand

out prominently as contrasted with the caprice of the heathen gods.


(1) Scriptural statement of the fact.


Psalm 116:5--"Gracious is the Lord, and righteous; yea, our God is

merciful." The context here shows that it is because of this fact

that God listens to men, and because having promised to hear He is

bound to keep His promises. Ezra 9:15--"0 Lord God of Israel, thou

art righteous." Here the Righteousness of Jehovah is acknowledged

in the punishment of Israel's sins. Thou art just, and thou hast

brought us into the state in which we are today. Psa. 145:17--"The

Lord is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works." This

is evident in the rewards He gives to the upright, in lifting up

the lowly, and in abundantly blessing the good, pure, and true.

Jer. 12:1--"Righteous art thou, O Lord, when I plead with thee."

That is to say, "If I were to bring a charge against Thee I should

not be able to convict Thee of injustice, even though I be painfully

exercised over the mysteries of Thy providence."


These scriptures clearly set forth not only the fact that God is

righteous and just, but also define these attributes. Here we are

told that God, in His government of the world, does always that

which is suitable, straight, and right.


(2) How the Righteousness and Justice of God is revealed.


In two ways: first, in punishing the wicked: retributive justice,

second, in rewarding the righteous: remunerative justice.


_aa) In the punishment of the wicked._


Psa. 11:4-7--"The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord's throne is

in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.

The Lord trieth the righteous; but the wicked and him that loveth

violence his soul hateth. Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire

and brimstone and an horrible tempest. This shall be the portion

of their cup." This is David's reply to his timid advisers. Saul

may reign upon the earth and do wickedly, but God reigns from heaven

and will do right. He sees who does right and who does wrong. And

there is that in His nature which recoils from the evil that He

sees, and will lead Him ultimately to punish it. There is such a

thing as the wrath of God. It is here described. Whatever awful

thing the description in this verse may mean for the wicked, God

grant that we may never know. In Exod. 9:23-27 we have the account

of the plague of hail, following which are these words: "And Pharaoh

sent...for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned

this time: the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked."

Pharaoh here acknowledges the perfect justice of God in punishing

him for his sin and rebellion. He knew that he had deserved it

all, even though cavillers today say there was injustice with God

in His treatment of Pharaoh. Pharaoh himself certainly did not

think so. Dan. 9:12-14 and Rev. 16:5, 6 bring out the same thought.

How careful sinners ought to be not to fall into the hands of the

righteous Judge! No sinner at last will be able to say, "I did not

deserve this punishment."


_bb) In forgiving the sins of the penitent._


1 John 1:9 (R. V.)--"If we confess our sins, he is faithful

and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all

unrighteousness." Ordinarily, the forgiveness of sin is associated

with the mercy, love, and compassion of God, and not with His

righteousness and justice. This verse assures us that if we confess

our sins, the righteousness and justice of God is our guarantee for

forgiveness--God cannot but forgive and cleanse us from all sin.


_cc) In keeping His word and promise to His children._


Neh. 9:7, 8--"Thou art the Lord the God, who didst choose Abram...and

madest a covenant with him to give the land of the Canaanites...to

his seed, and hast performed thy words; for thou art righteous."

We need to recall the tremendous obstacles which stood in the way

of the fulfillment of this promise, and yet we should remember the

eleventh chapter of Hebrews. When God gives His word, and makes

a promise, naught in heaven, on earth, or in hell can make that

promise void. His righteousness is the guarantee of its fulfillment.


_dd) In showing Himself to be the vindicator of His people from

all their enemies._


Psa. 129:1-4--"Many a time have they afflicted me...yet they have

not prevailed against me. The Lord is righteous: he hath cut asunder

the cords of the wicked." Sooner or later, God's people will triumph

gloriously as David triumphed over Saul. Even in this life God

will give us rest from our enemies; and there shall assuredly come

a day when we shall be "where the wicked cease from troubling, and

the weary are at rest."


_ee) In the rewarding of the righteous._


Heb. 6:10--"For God is not unrighteous to forget your work and labor

of love, which ye have showed towards his name, in that ye have

ministered unto the saints, and do minister." Those who had shown

their faith by their works would not now be allowed to lose that

faith. The very idea of divine justice implies that the use of this

grace, thus evidenced, will be rewarded, not only by continuance

in grace, but their final perseverance and reward. 2 Tim.

4:8--"Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness,

which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me at that day:

and not to me only, but unto all them that love hiss appearing."

The righteous Judge will not allow the faithful believer to go

unrewarded. He is not like the unrighteous judges of Rome and the

Athenian games. Here we are not always rewarded, but some time we

shall receive full reward for all the good that we have done. The

righteousness of God is the guarantee of all this.


c) The Mercy and Loving-kindness of God.


By these attributes is meant, in general, the kindness, goodness,

and compassion of God, the love of God in its relation to both

the obedient and the disobedient sons of men. The dew drops on the

thistle as well as on the rose.


More specifically: Mercy is usually exercised in connection with

guilt; it is that attribute of God which leads Him to seek the

welfare, both temporal and spiritual, of sinners, even though at

the cost of great sacrifice on His part. "But God, who is rich in

mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us...God commendeth

his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ

died for us." (Eph. 2:4; Rom. 5:8.)


Loving-kindness is that attribute of God which leads Him to bestow

upon His obedient children His constant and choice blessing. "He

that spared not his own Son, but freely delivered him up for us

all, how shall he not with him freely give us all things?" (Rom.

8:32.)


(I) Scriptural statement of the fact.


Psa. 103:8--"The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger,

and plenteous in mercy." For, instead of inflicting pain, poverty,

death--which are the wages of sin--God has spared our lives, given

us health, increased our blessings and comforts, and given us the

life of the ages. Deut. 4:31--"(For the Lord thy God is a merciful

God); he will not forsake thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget

the covenant of thy fathers." God is ready to accept the penitence

of Israel, even now, if only it be sincere. Israel will return and

find God only because He is merciful and does not let go of her.

It is His mercy that forbids his permanently forsaking His people.

Psa. 86:15--"But thou, O Lord, art a God full of compassion, and

gracious, long-suffering, and plenteous in mercy and truth." It

was because God had so declared Himself to be of this nature that

David felt justified in feeling that God would not utterly forsake

him in his time of great stress and need. The most striking

illustration of the Mercy and Loving-kindness of God is set forth

in the parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32). Here we have

not only the welcome awaiting the wanderer, but also the longing

for his return on the part of the anxious and loving father.


(1) How the Mercy and Loving-kindness of God are manifested.


In general: We must not forget that God is absolutely sovereign in

the bestowal of His blessings--"Therefore hath he mercy on whom he

will have mercy" (Rom. 9:18). We should also remember that God

wills to have mercy on all His creatures--"For thou, Lord, art good,

and ready to forgive, and plenteous in mercy to all them that call

upon thee" (Psa. 86:5).


_aa) Mercy--towards sinners in particular._


Luke 6:36--"Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is

merciful." Matt. 5:45--"That ye may be the children, of your Father

which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and

the good, and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust." Here even

the impenitent and hard-hearted are the recipients of God's mercy;

all sinners, even the impenitent are included in the sweep of His

mercy.


Isa. 55:7--"Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man

his thoughts, and let him return unto the Lord: and he will have

mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon."

God's mercy is a holy mercy; it will by no means protect sin, but

anxiously awaits to pardon it. God's mercy is a city of refuge for

the penitent, but by no means a sanctuary for the presumptuous. See

Prov. 28:13, and Psa. 51:1. God's mercy is here seen in pardoning

the sin of those who do truly repent. We speak about "trusting in

the mercy of the Lord." Let us forsake sin and then trust in the

mercy of the Lord and we shall find pardon.


2 Pet. 3:9--"The Lord...is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing

that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance."

Neh. 9:31--"Nevertheless for thy great mercies' sake thou didst not

utterly consume them; for thou art a gracious and merciful God."

Here is mercy manifested in forbearance with sinners. If God should

have dealt with them in justice they would have been cut off long

before. Think of the evil, the impurity, the sin that God must see.

How it must disgust Him. Then remember that He could crush it all

in a moment. Yet He does not. He pleads; He sacrifices to show His

love for sinners. Surely it is because of the Lord's mercies that

we are not consumed, and because His compassions fail not. Yet,

beware lest we abuse this goodness, for our God is also a consuming

fire. "Behold, the goodness and the severity of God." The Mercy

of God is here shown in His loving forbearance with sinners.


_bb) Loving-kindness towards the saints, in particular._


Psa. 32:10--"But he that trusteth in the Lord, mercy shall compass

him about." The very act of trust on the part of the believer moves

the heart of God to protect him just as in the case of a parent

and his child. The moment I throw myself on God I am enveloped in

His mercy--mercy is my environment, like a fiery wall it surrounds

me, without a break through which an evil can creep. Resistance

surrounds us with "sorrow"; but trust surrounds us with "mercy."

In the center of that circle of mercy sits and rests the trusting

soul.


Phil. 2:27--"For indeed he was sick nigh unto death; but God had

mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, lest I should

have sorrow upon sorrow." Here God's loving-kindness is seen in

healing up His sick children. Yet remember that "He hath mercy on

whom He will have mercy." Not every sick child of God is raised.

Psa. 6:4--"Have mercy upon me, O Lord, for I am weak: O Lord, heal

me...Deliver my soul for thy mercies' sake (v. 4)." The psalmist

asks God to illustrate His mercy in restoring to him his spiritual

health. From these scriptures we see that the mercy of God is

revealed in healing His children of bodily and spiritual sickness.


Psa. 21:7--"For the king trusteth in the Lord, and through the

mercy of the most High he shall not be moved." David feels that,

because he trusts in the mercy of the Lord, his throne, whatever

may dash against it, is perfectly secure. Is not this true also

of the believer's eternal security? More to the mercy of God than

to the perseverance of the saints is to be attributed the eternal

security of the believer. "He will hold me fast."


d) The Love of God.


Christianity is really the only religion that sets forth the Supreme

Being as Love. The gods of the heathen are angry, hateful beings,

and are in constant need of appeasing.


(1) Scriptural statements of the fact.


1 John 4:8-16--"God is love." "God is light"; "God is Spirit";

"God is love." Spirit and Light are expressions of God's essential

nature. Love is the expression of his personality corresponding to

His nature. It is the nature of God to love. He dwells always in

the atmosphere of love. Just how to define or describe the love

of God may be difficult if not impossible. It appears from certain

scriptures (1 John 3:16; John 3:16) that the love of God is of such

a nature that it betokens a constant interest in the physical and

spiritual welfare of His creatures as to lead Him to make sacrifices

beyond human conception to reveal that love.


(2) The objects of God's Love.


_aa) Jesus Christ, God's only-begotten Son, is the special object

of His Love._


Matt. 3:17--"This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

Also Matt. 17:5; Luke 20:13. Jesus Christ shares the love of the

Father in a unique sense, just as He is His Son in a unique sense.

He is especially "My chosen." "The One in whom my soul delighteth,"

"My beloved Son,"--literally: the Son of mine, the beloved. And we

can readily understand how that He who did the will of God perfectly

should thus become the special object of the Father's love. Of

course, if the love of God is eternal, as is the nature of God,

which must be the case, then, that love must have had an eternal

object to love. So Christ, in addressing the Father, says: "Thou

lovedst me before the foundation of the world."


_bb) Believers in His Son, Jesus Christ, are special objects of

God's Love._


John 16:27--"For the Father himself loveth you, because ye have

loved me, and have believed that I came out from God." 14:21-23--"He

that loveth me shall be loved of my Father. ...If a man love me...my

Father will love him." 17:23--"And hast loved them, as thou hast

loved me." Do we really believe these words? We are not on the

outskirts of God's love, but in its very midst. There stands Christ

right in the very midst of that circle of the Father's love; then

He draws us to that spot, and, as it were, disappears, leaving us

standing there bathed in the same loving-kindness of the Father in

which He Himself had basked.


_cc) God loves the world of sinners and ungodly men._


John 3:16--"For God so loved the world" was a startling truth to

Nicodemus in his narrow exclusivism. God loved not the Jew only,

but also the Gentile; not a part of the world of men, but every

man in it, irrespective of his moral character. For "God commendeth

his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ

died for us" (Rom. 5:8). This is wonderful when we begin to realize

what a world in sin is. The love of God is broader than the measure

of man's mind. God desires the salvation of all men (1 Tim. 2:4).


(3) How the Love of God reveals Itself.


_aa) In making infinite sacrifice for the salvation of men._


1 John 4:9, 10--"In this was manifested the love of God towards us,

because that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that

we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God,

but that God loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for

our sins." Love is more than compassion; it hides not itself as

compassion may do, but displays itself actively in behalf of its

object. The Cross of Calvary is the highest expression of the love

of God for sinful man. He gave not only a Son, but His only Son,

His well-beloved.


_bb) In bestowing full and complete pardon on the penitent._


Isa. 38:17--"Thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the pit

of corruption: for thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back."

Literally, "Thou hast loved my soul back from the pit of destruction."

God had taken the bitterness out of his life and given him the

gracious forgiveness of his sins, by putting them far away from

Him. Eph. 2:4, 5--"But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great

love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath

quickened us together with Christ," etc. Verses 1-3 of this chapter

show the race rushing headlong to inevitable ruin. "But" reverses

the picture; when all help for man fails, then God steps in, and

by His mercy, which springs from "His great love," redeems fallen

man, and gives him not only pardon, but a position in His heavenly

kingdom by the side of Jesus Christ. All this was "for," or, perhaps

better, "in order to satisfy His great love." Love led Him to do

it.


_cc) In remembering His children in all the varying circumstances

of life._


Isa. 63:9--"In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel

of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed

them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old." Here

is retrospection on the part of the prophet. He thinks of all the

oppressions of Israel, and recalls how God's interests have been

bound up with theirs. He was not their adversary; He was their

sympathetic, loving friend. He suffered with them. Isa. 49:15,

16--"Can a woman forget her sucking child? Yea, they may forget,

yet will I not forget thee. Behold, I have graven thee on the palms

of my hands; thy walls are continually before me." It was the custom

those days to trace upon the palms of the hands the outlines of any

object of affection; hence a man engraved the name of his god. So

God could not act without being reminded of Israel. God is always

mindful of His own. Saul of Tarsus learned this truth on the way

to Damascus.







THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST.


A. THE PERSON OF CHRIST.


   I. THE HUMANITY OF JESUS CHRIST.

      1. HE HAD A HUMAN PARENTAGE.

      2. HE GREW AS OTHER HUMAN BEINGS DO.

      3. HE HAD THE APPEARANCE OF A MAN.

      4. HE WAS POSSESSED OF A BODY, SOUL, AND SPIRIT.

      5. HE WAS SUBJECT TO THE SINLESS INFIRMITIES OF HUMANITY.

      6. HUMAN NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.


   II. THE DEITY OF JESUS CHRIST.


      1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.

      2. DIVINE WORSHIP IS ASCRIBED TO HIM.

      3. DIVINE QUALITIES AND PROPERTIES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.

      4. DIVINE OFFICES ARE ASCRIBED TO HIM.

      5. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.

      6. CHRIST'S NAME IS COUPLED WITH THAT OF THE FATHER.

      7. THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS CHRIST AS MANIFESTED:

         a) In His Visit to the Temple.

         b) In His Baptism.

         c) In His Temptation.

         d) In the Calling of the Twelve and the Seventy.

         e) In the Sermon on the Mount.


B. THE WORK OF CHRIST.


   1. HIS DEATH.

   2. HIS RESURRECTION.

   3. HIS ASCENSION AND EXALTATION.






THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST.


A. THE PERSON OF CHRIST.


The close kinship of Christ with Christianity is one of the

distinctive features of the Christian religion. If you take away

the name of Buddha from Buddhism and remove the personal revealer

entirely from his system; if you take away the personality of

Mahomet from Mahommedanism, or the personality of Zoroaster from

the religion of the Parsees, the entire doctrine of these religions

would still be left intact. Their practical value, such as it is,

would not be imperiled or lessened. But take away from Christianity

the name and person of Jesus Christ and what have you left? Nothing!

The whole substance and strength of the Christian faith centres in

Jesus Christ. Without Him there is absolutely nothing.--_Sinclair

Patterson._


From beginning to end, in all its various phases and aspects and

elements, the Christian faith and life is determined by the person and

the work of Jesus Christ. It owes its life and character at every

point to Him. Its convictions are convictions about Him. Its hopes

are hopes which He has inspired and which it is for Him to fulfill.

Its ideals are born of His teaching and His life. Its strength is

the strength of His spirit.--_James Denney._


I. THE HUMANITY OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. THE SCRIPTURES DISTINCTLY TEACH THAT HE HAD A HUMAN PARENTAGE:

THAT HE WAS BORN OF A WOMAN--THE VIRGIN MARY.


Matt. 1:18--"Mary ... was found with child of the Holy Ghost."

2-11--"The young child with Mary his mother." 12:47 --"Behold, thy

mother and thy brethren." 13:55--"Is not his mother called Mary?"

John 1:14--"The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." 2:1--"The

mother of Jesus was there." Acts 13:23--"Of this man's seed hath God

... raised ... ..Jesus." Rom.1:3--"Of the seed of David according

to the flesh." Gal. 4:4--"Made of a woman."


In thus being born of a woman Jesus Christ submitted to the conditions

of a human life and a human body; became humanity's son by a human

birth. Of the "seed of the woman," of the "seed of Abraham," and

of line and lineage of David, Jesus Christ is undeniably human.


We must not lose sight of the fact that there was something

supernatural surrounding the birth of the Christ. Matt. 1:18--"On

this wise," and Luke 1:35--"The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee,

and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore also

that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the

Son of God." "On this wise" indicates that this birth was different

from those recorded before it. Luke 1:35 is explicit about the

matter. To assail the virgin birth is to assail the Virgin's life.

He was of "the seed of the woman," not of the man. (See Luke 1:34--"How

shall this be, seeing I know not a man?") No laws of heredity are

sufficient to account for His generation. By a creative act God

broke through the chain of human generation and brought into the

world a supernatural being.


The narrative of the virgin birth need not stagger us. The abundance

of historical evidence in its favor should lead to its acceptance.

All the manuscripts in all the ancient versions contain the record

of it. All the traditions of the early church recognize it. Mention

of it is made in the earliest of all the creeds: the Apostles'

Creed. If the doctrine of the virgin birth is rejected it must be

on purely subjective grounds. If one denies the possibility of

the supernatural in the experience of human life, it is, of course,

easy for him to deny this doctrine. To one who believes that

Jesus was human only it would seem comparatively easy to deny the

supernatural birth on purely subjective grounds. The preconceptions

of thinkers to a great degree determine their views. It would

seem that such a wonderful life as that lived by Christ, having as

it did such a wonderful finish in the resurrection and ascension,

might, indeed should, have a wonderful and extraordinary entrance

into the world. The fact that the virgin birth is attested by the

Scriptures, by tradition, by creeds, and that it is in perfect

harmony with all the other facts of that wonderful life should

be sufficient attestation of its truth. [Footnote: _"The Virgin

Birth,"_ by James Orr, D.D., deals fully and most ably with this

subject.]


It has been thought strange that if, as is claimed, the virgin

birth is so essential to the right understanding of the Christian

religion, that Mark, John, and Paul should say nothing about it.

But does such silence really exist? John says "the Word became

flesh"; while Paul speaks of "God manifest in the flesh." Says L.

F. Anderson: "This argument from silence is sufficiently met by

the considerations that Mark passes over thirty years of our Lord's

life in silence; that John presupposes the narratives of Matthew

and Luke; that Paul does not deal with the story of Jesus' life.

The facts were known at first only to Mary and Joseph; their very

nature involved reticence until Jesus was demonstrated to be the

Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead; meantime

the natural development of Jesus and His refusal to set up an

earthly kingdom have made the miraculous events of thirty years

ago seem to Mary like a wonderful dream; so only gradually the

marvelous tale of the mother of the Lord found its way into the

Gospel tradition and the creeds of the church, and into the innermost

hearts of the Christians of all countries."


2. HE GREW IN WISDOM AND STATURE AS OTHER HUMAN BEINGS DO. HE WAS

SUBJECT TO THE ORDINARY LAWS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN BODY AND SOUL.


Luke 2:40, 52, 46--"And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit,

filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him. And Jesus

increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man.

And....they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the

doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions."


Just to what extent His sinless nature influenced His growth we may

not be able to say. It seems clear, however, from the Scriptures,

that we are to attribute Jesus' growth and advancement to the

training He received in a godly home; to the instruction given at

the synagogue and the temple; from His own personal study of the

Scriptures, and from His fellowship and communion with His Father.

Both the human and divine element entered into His training and

development, which were as real in the experience of Jesus as in

that of any other human being. We are told that "Jesus grew, and

increased in wisdom and stature." He "increased," i.e., He kept

advancing; He "grew," and the reflective form of the verb would

seem to indicate that His growth was due to His own efforts. From

all this it seems clear that Jesus received His training along the

lines of ordinary human progress--instruction, study, thought.


Nor should the fact that Christ possessed divine attributes, such

as omniscience and omnipotence, militate against a perfectly human

development. Could He not have possessed them and yet not have

used them? Self-emptying is not self-extinction. Is it incredible

to think that, although possessing these divine attributes, He

should have held them in subjection in order that the Holy Spirit

might have His part to play in that truly human, and yet divine,

life?


3. HE HAD THE APPEARANCE OF A MAN.


John 4:9--"How is it that thou, being a Jew." Luke 24:13--The two

disciples on the way to Emmaus took Him to be an ordinary man. John

20:15--"She, supposing him to be the gardener." 21:4, 5--"Jesus

stood on the shore; but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus."


The woman of Samaria evidently recognized Jesus as a Jaw by His

features or speech. To her He was just an ordinary Jew, at least

to begin with. There is no Biblical warrant for surrounding the

head of Christ with a halo, as the artists do. His pure life no

doubt gave Him a distinguished look, just as good character similarly

distinguishes men today. Of course we know nothing definite as to

the appearance of Jesus, for no picture or photograph of Him do we

possess. The apostles draw attention only to the tone of His voice

(Mark 7:34; 15:34). After the resurrection and ascension Jesus

seems still to have retained the form of a man (Acts 7:56; 1 Tim.

2:5).


4. HE WAS POSSESSED OF A HUMAN PHYSICAL NATURE: BODY, SOUL AND

SPIRIT.


John 1:14--"And the Word was made flesh." Heb. 2:14--"For asmuch

then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also

himself likewise took part of the same." Matt. 26:12--"She hath

poured this ointment on my body." v. 38--"My soul is exceeding

sorrowful." Luke 23:46--"Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit."

24:39--"Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle

me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me

have."


By his incarnation Christ came into possession of a real human

nature; He came not only unto His own, but came unto them in the

likeness of their own flesh. Of course we must distinguish between

a human nature and a carnal nature. A carnal nature is really not

an integral part of man as God made him in the beginning. Christ's

human nature was truly human, yet sinless: "Yet without sin" (Heb.

4:15).


5. HE WAS SUBJECT TO THE SINLESS INFIRMITIES OF HUMAN NATURE.


Matt. 4:2--"He was afterward an hungred." John 19:28--"Jesus....saith,

I thirst." 4:6--"Jesus....being wearied with his journey." Matt.

8:24--"But he was asleep." John 19:30--"He bowed his head, and gave

up the ghost." He mourns over Jerusalem (Matt. 23:37); weeps over

His dead friend Lazarus, (John 11:35); craves for human sympathy in

the garden (Matt. 26:36,40); tempted in all points like as we are

(Heb. 4:15). There is not a note in the great organ of our humanity

which, when touched, does not find a sympathetic vibration in the

mighty range and scope of our Lord's being, saving, of course, the

jarring discord of sin. But sin is not a necessary and integral

part of unfallen human nature. We speak of natural depravity, but,

in reality, depravity is _unnatural. God made Adam upright

and perfect; sin is an accident; it is not necessary to a true

human being.


6. HUMAN NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM BY HIMSELF AND OTHERS.


Luke 19:10--"Son of Man." Matt. 1:21--"Thou shalt call his name

Jesus." Acts 2:22--"Jesus of Nazareth." 1 Tim. 2:5--"The man Christ

Jesus."


No less than eighty times in the Gospels does Jesus call himself

the Son of Man. Even when acquiescing in the title Son of God as

addressed to Himself He sometimes immediately after substitutes

the title Son of Man (John 1:49-51; Matt 26:63,64).


While we recognize the fact that there is something official in

the title Son of Man, something connected with His relation to the

Kingdom of God, it is nevertheless true that in using this title

He assuredly identifies Himself with the sons of men. While He is

rightly called _THE_ Son of Man, because, by His sinless nature

and life He is unique among the sons of men, He is nevertheless

_A_ Son of Man in that He is bone of our bone and flesh of

our flesh.


II. THE DEITY OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.


a) He is Called God.


John 1:1--"The Word was God." Heb. 1:8--"But unto the Son he saith,

Thy throne, O God, is for ever." John 1:18--"The only begotten Son

(or better "only begotten God")." *


* [SLBC NOTE: The author's use of "only begotten God" must be rejected

outright. The phrase and belief come from the heretical Gnostic tradition.]


Absolute deity is here ascribed to

Christ. 20:28-"My Lord and my God." Not an expression of amazement,

but a confession of faith. This confession accepted by Christ, hence

equivalent to the acceptance of deity, and an assertion of it on

Christ's part. Rom. 9:5--"God blessed forever." Tit. 2:13--"The

great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ." 1 John,5:20--"His Son

Jesus Christ. This is the true God." In all these passages Christ

is called God.


It may be argued that while Christ is here called God, yet that

does not argue for nor prove His deity, for human judges are also

called "gods" in John 10:35--"If he called them gods unto whom the

word of God came." True, but it is then used in a secondary and

relative sense, and not in the absolute sense as when used of the

Son.


b) He is Called the Son of God.


The references containing this title are numerous. Among others

see Matt. 16:16, 17; 8:29; 14:33; Mark 1:1; 14:61; Luke 1:35; 4:41.

While it may be true that in the synoptic Gospels Jesus may not be

said to have claimed this title for Himself, yet He unhesitatingly

accepted it when used of Him and addressed to Him by others. Further,

it seems clear from the charges made against Him that He did claim

such an honor for Himself. Matt. 27:40, 43--"For he said, I am

the Son of God." Mark 14:61, 62 --"Art thou the Christ, the Son of

the Blessed" (Luke 22:70--"Art thou then the Son of God? And Jesus

said, I am." In John's Gospel, however, Jesus plainly calls Himself

"the Son of God" (5:25; 10:36 11:4). Indeed, John's Gospel begins

with Christ as God: "The Word was God," and ends with the same

thought: "My Lord and my God" (20:28). (Chapter 21 is an epilogue.)


Dr. James Orr says, in speaking of the title Son of God as ascribed

to Christ: "This title is one to which there can be no finite

comparison or analogy. The oneness with God which it designates is

not such reflex influence of the divine thought and character such

as man and angels may attain, but identity of essence constituting

him not God-like alone, but God. Others may be children of God in

a moral sense; but by this right of elemental nature, none but He;

He is herein, the _only_ Son; so little separate, so close to

the inner divine life which He expresses, that He is in the bosom

of the Father. This language denotes two natures homogeneous,

entirely one, and both so essential to the Godhead that neither

can be omitted from any truth you speak of it."


If when He called Himself "the Son of God" He did not mean more

than that He was _a_ son of God, why then did the high priest

accuse Him of blasphemy when He claimed this title (Matt. 26:

61-63)? Does not Mark 12:6--"Having yet therefore one son, his

well-beloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will

reverence my son," indicate a special sonship? The sonship of

Christ is human and historical, it is true; but it is more: it is

transcendent, unique, solitary. That something unique and solitary

lay in this title seems clear from John 5:18--"The Jews sought the

more to kill Him....because he....said....also that God was His

Father, making Himself equal with God."


The use of the word "only begotten" also indicates the uniqueness

of this sonship. For use of the word see Luke 7:12--"The only son of

his mother." 9:38--"For he is mine only child." This word is used

of Christ by John in 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9, and distinguishes

between Christ as the only Son, and the "many....children of God"

(John 1:12, 13). In one sense Christ has no brethren: He stands

absolutely alone. This contrast is clearly emphasized in John 1:14,

18--"only begotten Son," and 1:12 (R. V.)--"many....children." He

is the Son from eternity: they "become" sons in time. He is one;

they are many. He is Son by nature; they are sons by adoption and

grace. He is Son of the same essence with the Father; they are of

different substance from the Father.


c) He is Called The Lord.


Acts 4:33; 16:31; Luke 2:11; Acts 9:17; Matt. 22:43-45. It is true

that this term is used of men, e.g., Acts 16:30--"Sirs (Lords),

what must I do to be saved?" John 12:21--"Sir (Lord), we would

see Jesus." It is not used, however, in this unique sense, as the

connection will clearly show. In our Lord's day, the title "Lord"

as used of Christ was applicable only to the Deity, to God. "The

Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors would allow the name to be applied

to them only when they permitted themselves to be deified. The

archaeological discoveries at Oxyrhyncus put this fact beyond a

doubt. So when the New Testament writers speak of Jesus as Lord,

there can be no question as to what they mean." --_Wood._


d) Other Divine Names are Ascribed to Him:


"The first and the last" (Rev. 1:17). This title used of Jehovah

in Isa. 41:4; 44:6; 48:12. "The Alpha and Omega" (Rev. 22:13, 16);

cf. 1:8 where it is used of God.


2. DIVINE WORSHIP IS ASCRIBED TO JESUS CHRIST.


The Scriptures recognize worship as being due to God, to Deity

alone: Matt. 4:10--"Worship the Lord thy God, and him only." Rev.

22:8, 9--"I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel...Then

saith he unto me, See thou do it not:.... worship God." John was

not allowed even to worship God at the feet of the angel. Acts

14:14, 15; 10:25, 26--Cornelius fell down at the feet of Peter, and

worshipped him. "But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; I myself

also am a man." See what an awful fate was meted out to Herod

because he dared to accept worship that belonged to God only (Acts

12:20-25). Yet Jesus Christ unhesitatingly accepted such worship,

indeed, called for it (John 4:10). See John 20:28; Matt. 14:33;

Luke 24:52; 5:8.


The homage given to Christ in these scriptures would be nothing

short of sacrilegious idolatry if Christ were not God. There seemed

to be not the slightest reluctance on the part of Christ in the

acceptance of such worship. Therefore either Christ was God or He

was an imposter. But His whole life refutes the idea of imposture.

It was He who said, "Worship God only"; and He had no right to take

the place of God if He were not God.


God himself commands all men to render worship to the Son, even as

they do to Him. John 5:23, 24--"That all men should honor the Son,

even as they honor the Father." Even the angels are commanded to

render worship to the Son. Heb. 1:6--"And let all the angels of

God worship him." Phil. 2:10--"That at the name of Jesus every knee

should bow."


It was the practice of the apostles and the early church to render

worship to Christ: 2 Cor. 12:8-10--"I besought the Lord." Acts

7:59--"And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord

Jesus, receive my spirit." 1 Cor. 1:2--"Them that...call upon the

name of Jesus Christ our Lord."


The Christians of all ages have not been satisfied with admiring

Christ, they have adored and worshipped Him. They have approached

His person in the attitude of self-sacrifice and worship as in the

presence of and to a God.


Robert Browning quoted, in a letter to a lady in her last illness,

the words of Charles Lamb, when in a gay fancy with some friends

as to how he and they would feel if the greatest of the dead were

to appear suddenly in flesh and blood once more--on the first

suggestion, and "if Christ entered this room?" changed his tone

at once, and stuttered out as his manner was when moved: "You see

--if Shakespeare entered, we should all rise; if Christ appeared,

we must kneel."


3. HE POSSESSES THE QUALITIES AND PROPERTIES OF DEITY.


a) Pre-Existence.


John 1:1--"In the beginning"; cf. Gen 1:1 John 8:58--"Before Abraham

was, I am." That is to say: "Abraham's existence presupposes mine,

not mine his. He was dependent upon me, not I upon him for existence.

Abraham came into being at a certain point of time, but I am."

Here is simple being without beginning or end. See also John 17:5;

Phil. 2:6; Col. 1:16, 17.


b) Self-Existence and Life-Giving Power:


John 5:21, 26--"For as the Father raiseth up the dead and quickeneth

them, even so the Son quickeneth whom he will." "For as the Father

hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in

himself." 1:4--"In him was life." See also 14:6; Heb. 7:16; John

17:3-5; 10:17, 18. These scriptures teach that all life--physical,

moral, spiritual, eternal--has its source in Christ.


c) Immutability:


Heb. 13:8--"Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for

ever." See also 1:12. All nature, which like a garment He throws

around Him is subject to change and decay; Jesus Christ is the

same always, He never changes. Human teachers, such as are spoken

of in the context, may change, but He, the Christ, never.


d) All the Fulness of the Godhead Dwelt in Him:


Col. 2:9--Not merely the divine perfections and attributes of Deity,

but _(theotes)_ the very essence and nature of the Godhead.

He was not merely God-like; He was God.


4. DIVINE OFFICES ABE ASCRIBED TO HIM.


a) He is the Creator:


John 1:3--"All things were made by Him." In the creation He was the

acting power and personal instrument. Creation is the revelation

of His mind and might. Heb. 1:10 shows the dignity of the Creator

as contrasted with the creature. Col. 1:16 contradicts the Gnostic

theory of emanations, and shows Christ to be the creator of all

created things and beings. Rev. 3:14--"The beginning of the creation

of God," means "beginning" in the active sense, _the origin,_

that by which a thing begins to be. Col. 1:15--"first-born," not

made; compare with Col. 1:17, where the "for" of v. 16 shows Him

to be not included in the "created things," but the origin of and

superior to them all. He is the Creator of the universe (v. 16),

just as He is the Head of the church (v. 18).


b) He is the Upholder of All Things:


Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3. The universe is neither self-sustaining nor

is it forsaken by God (Deism). Christ's power causes all things

to hold together. The pulses of universal life are regulated and

controlled by the throbbings of the mighty heart of Christ.


c) He Has the Right to Forgive Sins.


Mark 2:5-10. Luke 7:48--"And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven."

Certain it is that the Pharisees recognized that Christ was here

assuming a divine prerogative. No mere man had any right to forgive

sins. God alone could do that. Hence the Pharisees' charge of

blasphemy. This is no declaration of forgiveness, based upon the

knowledge of the man's penitence. Christ does not merely _declare_

sins forgiven. He _actually_ forgives them. Further, Jesus, in

the parable of the Two Debtors (Luke 7), declares that sins were

committed against Himself (cf. Psa. 51:4--"Against thee, thee only,

have I sinned").


d) The Raising of the Bodies of Men is Ascribed to Him:


John 6:39, 40, 54; 11:25. Five times it is here declared by Jesus

that it is His prerogative to raise the dead. It is true that others

raised the dead, but under what different conditions? They worked

by a delegated power (Acts 9:34); but Christ, by His own power (John

10:17, 18). Note the agony of Elisha and others, as compared with

the calmness of Christ. None of these claimed to raise the dead by

his own power, nor to have any such power in the general resurrection

of all men. Christ did make such claims.


e) He is to be the Judge of All Men;


John 5:22--"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all

judgment unto the Son." 2 Tim. 4:1; Acts 17:31; Matt. 25:31-46.

The Man of the Cross is to be the Man of the throne. The issues of

the judgment are all in His hand.


5. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.


a) Omnipotence.


Matt 28:18--"All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth."

Rev. 1:8; John 17:2; Eph. I:20-22. Here is power over three realms:

First, all power on earth: over disease (Luke 4:38-41); death (John

11); nature, water into wine (John 2); tempest (Matt. 8). Second,

all power in hell: over demons (Luke 4:35, 36, 41); evil angels

(Eph. 6). Third, all power in heaven: (Eph. 1:20-22). Finally,

power over all things: (Heb. 2:8; 1:3; Matt. 28:18).


b) Omniscience.


John 16:30--"Now are we sure that thou knowest all things." 2:24;

Matt. 24; 25; Col. 2:3. Illustrations: John 4:16-19; Mark 2:8;

John 1:48. "Our Lord always leaves the impression that He knew all

things in detail, both past and future, and that this knowledge

comes from His original perception of the events. He does not learn

them by acquisition. He simply knows them by immediate perception.

Such utterances as Matt. 24 and Luke 21 carry in them a subtle

difference from the utterances of the prophets. The latter spoke as

men who were quite remote in point of time from their declaration

of unfolding events. Jesus spoke as one who is present in the midst

of the events which He depicts. He does not refer to events in

the past as if He were quoting from the historic narrative in the

Old Testament. The only instance which casts doubt upon this view

is Mark 13:32. The parallel passage in Matthew omits, in many

ancient versions, the words; "Neither the Son." The saying in Mark

is capable of an interpretation which does not contradict this

view of His omniscience. This is an omniscience nevertheless,

which in its manifestation to men is under something of human

limitation."--_Wood._


This limitation of knowledge is no argument against the infallibility

of those things which Jesus did teach: for example, the Mosaic

authorship of the Pentateuch. That argument, says Liddon, involves

a confusion between limitation of knowledge and liability to error;

whereas, plainly enough, a limitation of knowledge is one thing,

and fallibility is another. St. Paul says, "We know in part," and

"We see through a glass darkly." Yet Paul is so certain of the

truth of that which he teaches, as to exclaim, "But though we, or

an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that

which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed." Paul clearly

believed in his own infallibility as a teacher of religious truth,

and the church of Christ has ever since regarded his epistles as

part of an infallible literature. But it is equally clear that Paul

believed his knowledge of truth to be limited. Infallibility does

not imply omniscience, any more than limited knowledge implies error.

If a human teacher were to decline to speak upon a given subject,

by saying that he did not know enough about it, this would not be

a reason for disbelieving him when he proceeded to speak confidently

upon a totally different subject, thereby at least implying that

he did not know enough to warrant his speaking. On the contrary,

his silence in the one case would be a reason for trusting his

statements in the other. The argument which is under consideration

in the text would have been really sound, if our Saviour had fixed

the date of the day of judgment and the event had shown him to be

mistaken. Why stumble over the limitation of this attribute and

not over the others? Did He not hunger and thirst, for example? As

God He is omnipresent, yet as man He is present only in one place.

As God He is omnipotent; yet, on one occasion at least, He could

do no mighty works because of the unbelief of men.


c) Omnipresence.


Matt. 18:20--"For where two or three are gathered together in my

name, there am I in the midst of them." He is with every missionary

(Matt. 28:20). He is prayed to by Christians in every place (1 Cor.

1:2). Prayer would be a mockery if we were not assured that Christ

is everywhere present to hear. He fills all things, every place

(Eph. 1:23). But such an all pervading presence is true only of

Deity.


6. HIS NAME IS COUPLED WITH THAT OF GOD THE FATHER.


The manner in which the name of Jesus Christ is coupled with that

of God the Father clearly implies equality of the Son with the

Father. Compare the following:


a) The Apostolic Benediction.


2 Cor. 13:14. Here the Son equally with the Father is the bestower

of grace.


b) The Baptismal Formula.


Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:38. "In the name," not the names (plural).

How would it sound to say, "In the name of the Father" _and of

Moses?_ Would it not seem sacrilegious? Can we imagine the effect

of such words on the apostles?


c) Other Passages.


John 14:23--"We will come: the Father and I." 17:3--"And this is

life eternal that they might know thee, the only true God, _and

Jesus Christ."_ The content of saving faith includes belief in

Jesus Christ equally with the Father. 10:30--"I and my Father are

one." "One" is neuter, not masculine, meaning that Jesus and the

Father constitute one power by which the salvation of man is secured.

2 Thess. 2:16, 17--"Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God,

even our Father...comfort your hearts." These two names, with a

verb in the singular, intimate the oneness of the Father with the

Son.


7. THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS REGARDING HIS OWN PERSON AND

WORK.


It will be interesting to search the Gospel records to ascertain

what was in the mind of Jesus concerning Himself--His relation to

the Father in particular. What bearing has the testimony of Jesus

upon the question of His deity? Is the present Christian consciousness

borne out by the Gospel narratives? Is Jesus Christ a man of a

much higher type of faith than ours, yet one with whom we believe

in God? Or is He, equally with God, the object of our faith? Do we

believe _with Him_, or _on_ Him? Is there any indication

in the words ascribed to Jesus, as recorded in the Gospels,

of a consciousness on His part of His unique relation to God the

Father? Is it Jesus Himself who is responsible for the Christian's

consciousness concerning His deity, or is the Church reading into

the Gospel accounts something that is not really there? Let us see.


a) As Set Forth in the Narrative of His Visit to the Temple.


Luke 2:41-52. This is a single flower out of the wonderfully enclosed

garden of the first thirty years of our Lord's life. The emphatic

words, for our purpose, are "thy father," and "my Father." These are

the first recorded words of Jesus. Is there not here an indication

of the consciousness on the part of Jesus of a unique relationship

with His heavenly Father? Mary, not Joseph, asked the question, so

contrary to Jewish custom. She said: "Thy father"; Jesus replied

in substance: "Did you say _my_ father has been seeking me?"

It is remarkable to note that Christ omits the word "father" when

referring to His parents, cf. Matt. 12:48; Mark 3:33, 34. "_My_

Father!" No other human lips had ever uttered these words. Men said,

and He taught them to say, "_Our_ Father." It is not too much

to say that in this incident Christ sees, rising before Him, the

great truth that God, and not Joseph, is His Father, and that it

is in His true Father's house that He now stands.


b) As Revealed at His Baptism:


Matt. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-ll; Luke 3:21. Here are some things

to remember in connection with Christ's baptism: First, Jesus was

well acquainted with the relation of John and his ministry to the

Old Testament prophecy, as well as of John's own announcement

that he was the Messiah's fore-runner, and that he (John) was not

worthy to untie the latchet of Christ's shoes. Second, to come

then to John, and to submit to baptism at his hands, would indicate

that Jesus conceded the truth of all that John had said. This

is emphasized when we remember Jesus' eulogy of John (Matt. 11).

Thirdly, There is the descent of the Spirit, and the heavenly voice;

what meaning did these things have to Jesus? If Christ's sermon

in the synagogue at Nazareth is of any help here, we must believe

that at His baptism, so much more than at the age of twelve, He was

conscious that in thus being anointed He was associating Himself in

some peculiar way with the prophecy of Isaiah, chapters 42 and 61:

"Behold my Servant... I have put my Spirit upon Him." All, therefore,

that must have been wrapped up in the thought of the "Servant of

the Lord" in the Old Testament would assuredly be quickened in his

consciousness that day when the Spirit descended upon Him. See also

Luke 4:16-17; Acts 10: 38; Matt. 12:28.


But what did the heavenly voice signify to Christ? "This is my

beloved Son" takes us back to the second Psalm where this person

is addressed as the ideal King of Israel. The last clause--"in whom

I am well pleased"--refers to Isaiah 42, and portrays the servant

who is anointed and empowered by the endowment of God's Spirit. We

must admit that the mind of Jesus was steeped in the prophecies of

the Old Testament, and that He knew to whom these passages referred.

The ordinary Jew knew that much. Is it too much to say that on that

baptismal day Jesus was keenly conscious that these Old Testament

predictions were fulfilled in Him? We think not.


c) As Set Forth in the Record of the Temptation.


Matt. 4:1-11; Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1-13. That Jesus entered

into the temptation in the wilderness with the consciousness of

the revelation He received, and of which He was conscious at the

baptism, seems clear from the narratives. Certain it is that Satan

based his temptations upon Christ's consciousness of His unique

relation to God as His Son. Throughout the whole of the temptation

Satan regards Christ as being in a unique sense the Son of God, the

ideal King, through whom the kingdom of God is to be established

upon the earth. Indeed, so clearly is the kingship of Jesus recognized

in the temptation narrative that the whole question agitated there

is as to how that kingdom may be established in the world. It must

be admitted that a careful reading of the narratives forces us

to the conclusion that throughout all the temptation Christ was

conscious of His position with reference to the founding of God's

kingdom in the world.


d) As Set Forth in the Calling of the Twelve and the Seventy.


The record of this event is found in Matt. 10; Mark 3:13-19; 6:7-13;

Luke 9:1-6; 10:1-14. This important event in the life of our Lord

had an important bearing upon His self-consciousness as to His

person and work. Let us note some of the details:


_First_, as to the number, twelve. Is there no suggestion

here with reference to the New Jerusalem when the Messiah shall sit

upon the throne surrounded by the twelve apostles seated on their

thrones? Is not Jesus here conscious of Himself as being the centre

of the scene thus described in the Apocalypse?


_Second_, He gave them power. Is not Jesus here repeating what

had been done for Him at His baptism: conveying super-human power?

Who can give this power that is strong enough to make even demons

obey? No one less than God surely.


_Third_, note that the message which He committed to the twelve

concerned matters of life and death. Not to receive that message

would be equivalent to the rejection of the Father.


_Fourth_, all this is to be done in _His_ name, and for

_His_ name's sake. Fidelity to Jesus is that on which the final

destiny of men depends. Everything rises or falls in its relation

to Him. Could such words be uttered and there be no consciousness

on the part of the speaker of a unique relationship to the Father

and the things of eternity? Know you of anything bolder than this?


_Fifth_, He calls upon men to sacrifice their tenderest affections

for Him. He is to be chosen before even father and mother (Matt.

10:34-39).


e) As Revealed in the Sermon on the Mount.


Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:20-49. Two references will be sufficient here.

Who is this that dares to set Himself up as superior to Moses and

the law of Moses, by saying, "But _I_ say unto you"? Then,

again, listen to Christ as He proclaims Himself to be the judge

of all men at the last day (Matt. 7:21). Could Jesus say all this

without having any consciousness of His unique relationship to all

these things? Assuredly not.


B. THE WORK OF JESUS CHRIST.


The Death of Jesus Christ.


I. ITS IMPORTANCE.


1. IT HAS A SUPREME PLACE IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.


Christianity is a religion of atonement distinctively. The elimination

of the doctrine of the death of Christ from the religion that bears

His name would mean the surrender of its uniqueness and claim to

be the only true religion, the supreme and final revelation from

God to the sons of men. It is its redemption feature that distinguishes

Christianity from any and all other religions. If you surrender this

distinctive Christian doctrine from its creed, then this supreme

religion is brought down to the level of many other prevailing

religious systems. Christianity is not merely a system of ethics;

it is the history of redemption through Jesus Christ, the personal

Redeemer.


2. ITS VITAL RELATION TO JESUS CHRIST.


The atonement is so closely related to Jesus Christ, so allied to

His work, as set forth in the Scriptures, that it is absolutely

inseparable from it. Christ was not primarily a religious teacher,

a philanthropist, an ethical example; He was all these, yea, and much

more--He was first and foremost the world's Saviour and Redeemer.

Other great men have been valued for their lives; He, above all,

for His death, around which God and man are reconciled. The Cross

is the magnet which sends the electric current through the telegraph

between earth and heaven, and makes both Testaments thrill,

through the ages of the past and future, with living, harmonious,

and saving truth. Other men have said: "If I could only live, I

would establish and perpetuate an empire." The Christ of Galilee

said: "My death shall do it." Let us understand that the power

of Christianity lies, not in hazy indefiniteness, not in shadowy

forms, not so much even in definite truths and doctrines, but in

the truth, and in the doctrine of Christ crucified

and risen from the dead. Unless Christianity be more than ethical,

it is not, nor can it really be ethical at all. It is redemptive,

dynamic through that redemption, and ethical withal.


3. ITS RELATION TO THE INCARNATION.


It is not putting the matter too strongly when we say that the

incarnation was for the purpose of the atonement. At least this

seems to be the testimony of the Scriptures. Jesus Christ partook

of flesh and blood in order that He might die (Heb. 2:14). "He was

manifested to take away our sins" (1 John 3:5). Christ came into

this world to give His life a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28). The

very purpose of the entire coming of Christ into the word, in all

its varying aspects, was that, by assuming a nature like unto our

own, He might offer up His life as a sacrifice for the sins of men.

The faith of the atonement presupposes the faith of the incarnation.

So close have been the relation of these two fundamental doctrines

that their relation is one of the great questions which have

divided men in their opinions in the matter: which is primary and

which secondary; which is to be regarded as the most necessary to

man's salvation, as the primary and the highest fact in the history

of God's dealings with man. The atonement naturally arises out of

the incarnation so that the Son of God could not appear in our nature

without undertaking such a work as the word atonement denotes. The

incarnation is a pledge and anticipation of the work of atonement.

The incarnation is most certainly the declaration of a purpose

on the part of God to save the world. But how was the world to be

saved if not through the atonement?


4. ITS PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.


It was the claim of Jesus, in His conversation with the two

disciples on the way to Emmaus, that Moses, and all the prophets,

indeed, all the Scriptures, dealt with the subject of His death

(Luke 24:27, 44). That the death of Christ was the one great subject

into which the Old Testament prophets searched deeply is clear from

1 Pet. 1:11, 12. The atonement is the scarlet cord running through

every page in the entire Bible. Cut the Bible anywhere, and it

bleeds; it is red with redemption truth. It is said that one out

of every forty-four verses in the New Testament deals with this

theme, and that the death of Christ is mentioned in all one hundred

and seventy-five times. When you add to these figures the typical

and symbolical teaching of the Old Testament some idea is gained as

to the important place which this doctrine occupies in the sacred

Scriptures.


5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEME OF THE GOSPEL.


Paul says: "I delivered unto you first of all (i.e., first in

order; the first plank in the Gospel platform; the truth of primary

importance) . . . that Christ died for our sins" (1 Cor. 15:1-3).

There can be no Gospel story, message or preaching without the

story of the death of Christ as the Redeemer of men.


6. THE ONE GRAND THEME IN HEAVEN.


Moses and Elias, the heavenly visitors to this earth, conversed

about it (Luke 9:30, 31), even though Peter was ashamed of the same

truth (Matt. 16:21-25). The theme of the song of the redeemed in

heaven is that of Christ's death (Rev. 5:8-12).


II. THE SCRIPTURAL DEFINITION OF THE DEATH OF CHRIST.


The Scriptures set forth the death of Jesus Christ in a four-fold

way:


1. AS A RANSOM. Matt. 20:28; 1 Pet. l;18; 1 Tim. 2:6; Gal. 3:13.


The meaning of a ransom is clearly set forth in Lev. 25:47-49: To

deliver a thing or person by paying a price; to buy back a person

or thing by paying the price for which it is held in captivity. So

sin is like a slave market in which sinners are "sold under sin"

(Rom. 7:14); souls are under sentence of death (Ezek. 18:4). Christ,

by His death, buys sinners out of the market, thereby indicating

complete deliverance from the service of sin. He looses the bonds,

sets the prisoners free, by paying a price--that price being His

own precious blood.


To whom this ransom is paid is a debatable question: whether to

Satan for his captives, or to eternal and necessary holiness, to

the divine law, to the claims of God who is by His nature the holy

Lawgiver. The latter, referring to God and His holiness, is probably

preferable.


Christ redeemed us from the curse of a broken law by Himself being

made a curse for us. His death was the ransom price paid for our

deliverance.


2. A PROPITIATION. Rom. 3:25; 1 John 2:2; Heb. 2:17 (R. V.).


Christ is the propitiation for our sins; He is set forth by God to

be a propitiation through His blood.


Propitiation means mercy-seat, or covering. The mercy-seat covering

the ark of the covenant was called propitiation (Exod. 25:22;

Heb. 9:5.) It is that by which God covers, overlooks, and pardons

the penitent and believing sinner because of Christ's death.

Propitiation furnishes a ground on the basis of which God could

set forth His righteousness, and yet pardon sinful men, Rom. 3:25,

26; Heb. 9:15. Christ Himself is the propitiatory sacrifice, 1

John 2:2. The death of Jesus Christ is set forth as the ground on

which a righteous God can pardon a guilty and sinful race without

in any way compromising His righteousness.


3. AS A RECONCILIATION. Rom. 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:18, 19; Eph. 2:16; Col.

1:20.


We are reconciled to God by the death of His Son, by His Cross, and

by the blood of His Cross--that is the message of these scriptures.


Reconciliation has two sides; active and passive. In the _active_

sense we may look upon Christ's death as removing the enmity

existing between God and man, and which had hitherto been a barrier

to fellowship (see the above quoted texts). This state of existing

enmity is set forth in such scriptures as Rom. 8:7--"Because the

carnal mind is enmity against God." Also Eph. 2:15; Jas. 4:4. In

the _passive_ sense of the word it may indicate the change of

attitude on the part of man toward God, this change being wrought

in the heart of man by a vision of the Cross of Christ; a change

from enmity to friendship thus taking place, cf. 2 Cor. 5:20. It

is probably better to state the case thus: God is propitiated, and

the sinner is reconciled (2 Cor. 5:18-20).


4. AS A SUBSTITUTION. Isa. 53:6; 1 Pet. 2:24, 3:18; 2 Cor. 5:21.


The story of the passover lamb (Exod. 12), with 1 Cor. 5:7,

illustrates the meaning of substitution as here used: one life given

in the stead of another. "The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity

of us all." God made Christ, who knew no sin, to be sin for us.

Christ Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree--this is

substitution. Christ died in our place, bore our sins, paid the

penalty due our sins; and all this, not by force, but willingly

(John 10:17, 18). The idea of substitution is well illustrated by

the nature of the preposition used in connection with this phase

of Christ's death: In Matt. 80-28 Christ is said to give His life

a ransom _for_ all (also 1 Tim. 2:6). That this preposition means

_instead of_ is clear from its use in Matt. 2:22--"Archelaus

did reign in the room (or in the stead) of his father, Herod." Also

in Luke 11:11--"Will he _for_ a fish give him a serpent?" (See

Heb. 12:2, 16.) Substitution, then, as used here means this: That

something happened to Christ, and because it happened to Christ,

it need not happen to us. Christ died for our sins; we need not

die for them if we accept His sacrifice. For further illustrations,

see Gen. 22:13; God providing a ram instead of Isaac; also Barabbas

freed and Christ bearing his cross and taking his place.



    Upon a life I did not live;

       Upon a death I did not die;

    Upon another's death, another's life,

       I risk my soul eternally.



III. UNSCRIPTURAL VIEWS OF CHRIST'S DEATH.


There are certain so called _modern_ views of the atonement

which it may be well to examine briefly, if only to show how

unscriptural they are. That the modern mind fails to see in the

doctrine of the atonement what the orthodox faith has held for

centuries to be the truth of God regarding this fundamental Christian

doctrine, there is certainly no doubt. To some minds today the death

of Jesus Christ was but the death of a martyr, counted in the same

category as the death of John Huss or Savonarola. Or perchance

Christ's death was an exhibition to a sinful world of God's wondrous

love. Or it may be that Christ, in His suffering of death, remains

forever the sublime example of adherence to principles of righteousness

and truth, even to the point of death. Or, again, Calvary may be an

episode in God's government of the world. God, being holy, deemed

it necessary to show to the world His hatred of sin, and so His

wrath fell on Christ. The modern mind does not consider Christ's

death as in any sense vicarious, or substitutionary. Indeed,

it fails to see the justice as well as the need or possibility of

one man, and He so innocent, suffering for the sins of the whole

race--past, present and future. Every man must bear the penalty of

his own sin, so we are told; from that there is no escape, unless,

and it is fervently hoped and confidently expected, that God, whose

wondrous love surpasses all human conception, should, as He doubtless

will, overlook the eternal consequences of man's sin because of

the great love wherewith He loves the race. The love of God is

the hope of the race's redemption.


What shall the Christian church say to these things, and what

shall be her reply? To the Word of God must the church resort

for her weapons in this warfare. If the so called modern mind and

its doctrinal views agree with the Scriptures, then the Christian

church may allow herself to be influenced by the spirit of the age.

But if the modern mind and the Scriptures do not agree in their

results, then the church of Christ must part company with the modern

mind. Here are some of the modern theories of the atonement:


1. THE ACCIDENT THEORY.


Briefly stated, this is the theory: The Cross was something unforeseen

in the life of Christ. Calvary was not in the plan of God for His

Son. Christ's death was an accident, as unforeseen and unexpected

as the death of any other martyr was unforeseen and unexpected.


To this we reply: Jesus was conscious all the time of His forthcoming

death. He foretold it again and again. He was always conscious

of the plots against His life. This truth is corroborated by the

following scriptures: Matt. 16-21; Mark 9:30-32; Matt. 20:17-19;

Luke 18:31-34; Matt, 20:28; 26:2, 6, 24, 39-42; Luke 22:19, 20.

Further, in John 10:17, 18 we have words which distinctly contradict

this false theory: "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay

down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from

me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and

I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of

my Father."


In addition to this we may make mention of the many, many references

and prophecies of the Old Testament to the fact of Christ's death.

Then there is Christ's own testimony to the fact of His death being

predicted and foretold by the prophets (Luke 24:26, 27, 44). See

also Isa. 53; Psa. 22; 69.


2. THE MARTYR THEORY.


It is as follows: Christ's death was similar in kind to that of

John Huss, or Polycarp, or any other noble man who has given up

his life as a sacrifice for a principle and for truth.


To this we reply: Then Christ should have so declared Himself.

Paul should have said so. That word was used for other Christian

deaths, why not for Christ's? Then there is no mystery about the

atonement, and the wonder is that Paul should have said anything

about the mystery. Further, if Christ died as a martyr He might, at

least, have had the same comforting presence of God afforded other

martyrs in the hour of their death. Why should He be God-forsaken

in that crucial hour? Is it right that God should make the holiest

man in all the ages the greatest sufferer, if that man were but

a martyr? When you recall the shrinking of Gethsemane, could you

really--and we say it reverently--call Jesus as brave a man facing

death as many another martyr has been? Why should Christ's soul

be filled with anguish (Luke 22:39-46), while Paul the Apostle was

exultant with joy (Phil. 1:23)? Stephen died a martyr's death,

but Paul never preached forgiveness through the death of Stephen.

Such a view of Christ's death may beget martyrs, but it can never

save sinners.


3. THE MORAL EXAMPLE THEORY.


Christ's death has an influence upon mankind for moral improvement.

The example of His suffering ought to soften human hearts, and help

a man to reform, repent, and better his condition. So God grants

pardon and forgiveness on simple repentance and reformation. In the

same way a drunkard might call a man his saviour by whose influence

he was induced to become sober and industrious. But did the sight

of His suffering move the Jews to repentance? Does it move men today?

Such a view of Christ's death does not deal with the question with

which it is always connected, viz., the question of sin.


4. THE GOVERNMENTAL THEORY.


This means that the benevolence of God requires that He should make

an example of suffering in Christ in order to exhibit to man that

sin is displeasing in His sight. God's government of the world

necessitates that He show His wrath against sin.


True, but we reply: Why do we need an incarnation for the manifestation

of that purpose? Why not make a guilty, and not an absolutely

innocent and guileless man such an example of God's displeasure

upon sin? Were there not men enough in existence? Why create a

new being for such a purpose?


5. THE LOVE OF GOD THEORY.


He died to show men how much God loved them. Men ever after would

know the feeling of the heart of God toward them.


True, the death of Christ did show the great love of God for fallen

man. But men did not need such a sacrifice to know that God loved

them. They knew that before Christ came. The Old Testament is full

of the love of God. Read Psalm 103. The Scriptures which speak

of God's love as being manifested in the gift of His Son, tell us

also of another reason why He gave His Son: "That whosoever believeth

in him should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16);

"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and

sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins" (1 John 4:10).


We believe that Christ's Cross reveals the love of God, and that

throughout all these ages men have been bowed in penitence as they

have caught a vision of the One who hung thereon. But if you were

to question the multitudes that have believed in God because of

the Cross, you would find that what moved them to repentance was

not merely, if at all, certainly not primarily, that the Cross

revealed the love of God in a supreme way, but the fact that there

at that Cross God had dealt with the great and awful fact of sin,

that the Cross had forever removed it.


"I examine all these views, beautiful as some of them are, appealing

to the pride of man, but which leave out all thought of vicarious

atonement, and say, 'But what shall be done with my sin? Who shall

put it away? Where is its sacrifice? If without shedding of blood

there is no remission of sin, where is the shed blood?' These

views are neat, measurable, occasionally pathetic, and frequently

beautiful, but they do not include the agony of the whole occasion

and situation. They are aspect theories, partial conceptions. They

do not take in the whole temple from its foundation to its roof.

No man must set up his judgment against that of another man in a

dogmatic way, but he may, yea, he must, allow his heart to speak

through his judgment; and in view of this liberty, I venture to

say that all these theories of the atonement are as nothing, most

certainly shallow and incomplete to me . . . . As I speak now,

at this very moment, I feel that the Christ on the Cross is doing

something for me, that His death is my life, His atonement my pardon,

His crucifixion the satisfaction for my sin, that from Calvary,

that place of a skull, my flowers of peace and joy blossom forth,

and that in the Cross of Christ I glory."--_Joseph Parker._


IV. THE NECESSITY OF CHRIST'S DEATH.


The necessity of the atonement lay in a twofold fact: The holiness

of God, and the sinfulness of man. The doctrine of the atonement

is a related subject, and it cannot be properly understood unless

it is viewed as such. It is related to certain conditions existing

between God and man--a condition and relation which has been affected

by sin. It is necessary, therefore, to know this relation and how

it has been affected by sin. This relation between God and man

is a personal one. No other construction can legitimately be put

upon the passages setting forth this relationship. "_Thou_ has

searched _me_, and known _me_." "_I_ am continually

with _Thee_." It is, moreover, an ethical relationship, and

that which is ethical is at the same time personal and universal,

that is to say, that God's dealings with mankind are expressed

in a moral constitution of universal and eternal validity. These

relationships are disordered by sin. No matter how sin came to be

here we are morally conscious, by the testimony of a bad conscience,

that we are guilty, and that our sin is not merely a matter of

personal guilt but a violation of a universal moral law.


1. THE HOLINESS OF GOD.


We should carefully note the emphasis laid upon the doctrine of

God's holiness in the Old Testament (see under Attributes of God,

p. 37). The Levitical law, the laws of clean and unclean, the

tabernacle and the temple with its outer court, its holy and most

holy place, the priestly order and the high priest, the bounds

set around Mt. Sinai, things and persons that might not be touched

without causing defilement, sacred times and seasons, these, and

much more, speak in unmistakable terms of the holiness of God.

We are thus taught that if sinful man is to approach unto God, it

must be through the blood of atonement. The holiness of God demands

that before the sinner can approach unto and have communion with

Him, some means of propitiation must be provided. This means of

approach is set forth in the shed blood.


2. THE SIN OF MAN.


Light and erroneous views of the atonement come from light and

erroneous views of sin. If sin is regarded as merely an offence

against man, a weakness of human nature, a mere disease, rather than

as rebellion, transgression, and enmity against God, and therefore

something condemning and punishable, we shall not, of course,

see any necessity for the atonement. We must see sin as the Bible

depicts it, as something which brings wrath, condemnation, and eternal

ruin in its train. We must see it as guilt that needs expiation.

We must see sin as God sees it before we can denounce it as God

denounces it. We confess sin today in such light and easy terms

that it has almost lost its terror.


In view of these two thoughts, the holiness of God and the sinfulness

of man, the question naturally arises: How is the mercy of God to

be manifested so that His holiness will not be compromised by His

assuming a merciful attitude towards sinful men in the granting of

forgiveness, pardon, justification? The answer is: The only way in

which this can be done is by means of the atonement.


3. THE FULFILLMENT OF THE SCRIPTURES.


We may add this third thought to the two already mentioned. There

is a sense in which the atonement was necessary in order to the

fulfillment of the predictions of the Old Testament--predictions

inseparable from the person and work of the Messiah. If Jesus

Christ were the true Messiah, then these predictions regarding His

sufferings and death must be fulfilled in Him (Luke 24:25-27, 44;

Isa. 53; Psa. 22; 69).


V. THE EXTENT OF CHRIST'S DEATH.


Was the death of Jesus Christ for all mankind--for every human

being in the world, or for man actually and ultimately regenerate

only--the chosen Church? Was it for all mankind, irrespective of

their relation to Jesus Christ, or must we limit the actual benefits

of the atonement to those who are spiritually united to Christ by

faith? That the death of Christ is intended to benefit all mankind

seems clear from the following scriptures: Isa. 53:6; 1 Tim. 2:6;

1 John 2:2, cf. 2 Cor. 5:19; Rom. 14:15; 1 Cor. 8:11. The scriptures,

which to some seem to limit the effects of the atonement, are John

10:15, cf. vv 26, 29; Eph. 5:25-27.


Certain it is that the doctrine of the atonement is presented in

the Scriptures as competent to procure and secure salvation for

all. Indeed, not only competent but efficacious to do this very

thing. It might seem that there is an apparent contradiction in

the above-named scriptures. The atonement, in its actual issue,

should realize and actualize the eternal purpose of God, the which

is set forth as a desire that all men should be saved and come

to a saving knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. This

is testified to be the general and universal invitation of the

Scriptures to partake of the blessings of Christ's death. Thus the

offer of the Gospel to all is not a pretence but a reality on the

part of God. The divine willingness that all men should share the

benefits of the atonement is all-inclusive, and really means what

is offered. Yet on the other hand, we can not overlook the fact

that, from another point of view the effects of the atonement--shall

we say the _purpose_ of the atonement?--seems to be limited

to the sphere of the true Church, so that only those who

are really united to Christ by faith actually share in the merits

of the atonement. Let us put it this way: "The atonement is

_sufficient_ for all; it is _efficient_ for those who

believe in Christ." The atonement itself, so far as it lays the basis

for the redemptive dealing of God with all men, is _unlimited_;

the _application_ of the atonement is limited to those who actually

believe in Christ. He is the Saviour of all men _potentially_

(1 Tim. 1:15); of believers alone _effectually_ (1 Tim. 4:10).

The atonement is limited only by men's unbelief.


1. FOR THE WHOLE WORLD.


The Scriptures set forth this fact in the following statements:

"And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only,

but also for the sins of the whole world" (1 John 2:2). Christ's

death was the ground on which God, who is absolutely holy, could

deal with the whole race of men in mercy, and pardon their sins.


John 1:29--"Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of

the world." Not the sin of a few individuals, or of an elect race,

like Israel, but the sin of the whole world. This was a striking

truth to reveal to a Jew.


1 Tim. 2:6--"Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in

due time." It is for this reason, as the context of this passage

shows, that we may pray for all men. If all men were not capable

of being saved, how then could we pray to that end?


2. FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL MAN.


This is but a detailed statement of the fact that He died for the

whole world. Not a single individual man, woman, or child is excluded

from the blessings offered in the atonement.


Heb. 2:9--"But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the

angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor;

that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man."

Leo the Great (461) affirmed that "So precious is the shedding of

Christ's blood for the unjust, that if the whole universe of captives

would believe in the Redeemer, no chain of the devil could hold

them." General Booth once said: "Friends, Jesus shed His precious

blood to pay the price of salvation, and bought from God enough

salvation to go around."


3. FOR THE SINFUL, UNJUST, AND UNGODLY.


Sinners of all sorts, degrees, and conditions may have a share in

the redemptive work of Christ. Greece invited only the cultured,

Rome sought only the strong, Judea bid for the religious only.

Jesus Christ bids all those that are weary and heavy-hearted and

over-burdened to come to Him (Matt. 11:28).


Rom. 5:6-10--"Christ died for the ungodly...While we were yet sinners,

Christ died for us...When we were enemies, we were reconciled to

God by the death of His Son." 1 Pet. 3:18--"For Christ also hath

once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust." Christ died for

_sinners_--those in open opposition to God; for the

_unjust_--those who openly violate God's laws; for the

_ungodly_--those who violently and brazenly refuse to pay their

dues of prayer, worship, and service to God; for _enemies_

--those who are constantly fighting God and His cause. For all of

these Christ died.


1 Tim. 1:15--"Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of

whom I am chief." Paul was a _blasphemer_, a _persecutor_,

_injurious_ (v. 13), a _murderer_ (Acts 22 and 26), yet

God saved him; he was included in the atonement. Note also that

it is in this very connection that the apostle declares that the

reason God saved him was in order that his salvation might be a

pattern, or an encouragement to other great sinners, that God could

and would save them, if they desired Him to do so.


4. FOR THE CHURCH.


There is a peculiar sense in which it may be said that Christ's

death is for the Church, His body, the company of those who believe

in Him. There is a sense in which it is perfectly true that Christ's

death avails only for those who believe in Him; so in that sense

it can be said that He died for the Church more particularly. He is

"the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe" (1 Tim.

4:10). Herein lies the truth that is contained in the theory of a

limited atonement.


Eph. 5:25-27--"Christ also loved the church, and gave himself

for it." Not for any one particular denomination; not for any one

organization within any four walls; but for all those whom He calls

to Himself and who follow Him here.


Gal. 2:20--"The Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."

Here the individual member of the Church, the body of Christ, is

specifically mentioned as being included in the efficacy of the

atonement. When Luther first realized this particular phase of the

atonement, he was found sobbing beneath a crucifix, and moaning:

"Mein Gott, Mein Gott, Fur Mich! Fur Mich!"


1 Cor. 8:11--"And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother

perish, for whom Christ died?" Also Rom. 14:15. Note the connection

in which this truth is taught. If Christ was willing to die for the

weak brother--whom we, perchance, sneer at for his conscientious

scruples--we ought to be willing to deny ourselves of some habit

for his sake.


How all-inclusive, all-comprehensive, far-reaching is the death of

Christ in its effects! Not a few, but many shall be saved. He gave

his life a ransom for _many_. God's purposes in the atonement

shall not be frustrated. Christ shall see of the travail of His

soul, and shall be satisfied. Many shall come from the north, the

south, the east and the west and sit down in the kingdom. In that

great day it will be seen (Rev. 7:9-15).


VI. THE EFFECTS OF CHRIST'S DEATH.


1. IN RELATION TO THE PHYSICAL OR MATERIAL UNIVERSE.


Just as the material universe was in some mysterious manner affected

by the fall of man (Rom. 8:19-23, R. V.), so also is it affected

by the death of Jesus Christ, which is intended to neutralize the

effect of sin upon the creation. There is a cosmical effect in the

atonement. The Christ of Paid is larger than the second Adam--the

Head of a new humanity; He is also the center of a universe which

revolves around Him, and is in some mysterious way reconciled by

His death. Just how this takes place we may not be able definitely

to explain.


Col. 1:20--"And, having made peace through the blood of his cross,

by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether

they be things in earth, or things in heaven." Some day there shall

be a new heaven and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness (2

Pet. 3:13). See also Heb. 9:23, 24; Isa. 11 and 35.


2. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD OF MEN.


a) The Enmity Existing Between God and Man is Removed:


Rom. 5:10; Col. 1:20-22. For explanation, see under Scriptural

Definition of the Atonement ((II.3, p. 72). The ground of enmity

between God and man--whether in the active or passive sense of

_reconciliation_--is removed by Christ's death. The world of

mankind is, through the atonement, reconciled to God.


b) A Propitiation for the World's Sin Has Been Provided:


1 John 2:2; 4:10. See under Propitiation (II. 2, p. 71). The

propitiation reaches as far as does the sin.


c) Satan's Power Over the Race Has Been Neutralized:


John 12:31, 32--"Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the

prince of this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the

earth, will draw all men unto me." Also John 16:9, 10; Col. 2:10.

The lifting up of Christ on the Cross meant the casting down of

Satan. Satan no longer holds undisputed sway over the sons of men.

The power of darkness has been broken. Man need no longer be the

slave of sin and Satan.


d) The Question of the World's Sin is Settled:


It need no longer stand as a barrier between God and man. Strictly

speaking, it is not now so much of a _sin_ question as it is

a _Son_ question; not, What shall be done with my sin? but,

What shall I do with Jesus, which is called Christ? The sins of

the Old Testament saints, which during all the centuries had been

held, as it were, in abeyance, were put away at the Cross (Rom.

3:25, 26). Sins present and future were also dealt with at the

Cross. By the sacrifice of Himself, Christ forever put away sin

(Heb. 9:26).


e) The Claims of a Broken Law Have Been Met, and the Curse Resting

upon Man Because of a Broken Law Removed.


Col. 2:14--"Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was

against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way,

nailing it to his cross." Thus every claim of the holy law of God,

which sinful man had violated, had been met.


Gal. 3:13--"Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law,

being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one

that hangeth on a tree." (See v. 10 for the description of the

curse.) The wages of sin, and the curse of sin, is death. Christ

by His death on the Cross, paid that debt, and removed that curse.


f) Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Access to God,

an Inheritance, and the Removal of All Fear of Death--All This is

Included in the Effect of the Death of Christ in the Behalf of

the Believer.


Rom. 5:9; Gal. 4:3-5; Heb. 10:10; 10:19, 20; 9:15; 2:14, 15. How

comforting, how strengthening, how inspiring are these wonderful

aspects of the effects of the death of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus

Christ!


3. THE EFFECT OF CHRIST'S DEATH ON SATAN.


See under c) above. The devil must submit to the victory of Christ.

The dominion of Satan, so far as the believer in Christ is concerned,

is now at an end: his dominion over the disobedient sons of men,

too, will soon be at an end. Christ's death was the pronouncement

of Satan's doom; it was the loss of his power over men. The power

of the devil, while not yet absolutely destroyed, has been neutralized

(Heb. 2:14). The evil principalities and powers, and Satan himself,

did their worst at the Cross, but there they received their deathblow

(Col. 2:14, 15).


THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.


I. ITS IMPORTANT PLACE IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.


1. IT HOLDS A UNIQUE PLACE IN CHRISTIANITY.


Christianity is the only religion that bases its claim to acceptance

upon the resurrection of its founder. For any other religion to

base its claim on such a doctrine would be to court failure. Test

all other religions by this claim and see.


2. IT IS FUNDAMENTAL TO CHRISTIANITY.


In that wonderful chapter on the resurrection (1 Cor. 15) Paul

makes Christianity answer with its life for the literal truth of

the resurrection of Jesus Christ. That the body of the founder of

the Christian religion did not lie in the grave after the third day

is fundamental to the existence of the religion of Christ: "And

if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith

is also vain" (v. 14). "If Christ be not raised . . . ye are yet

in your sins" (v. 17). "Then they also which are fallen asleep in

Christ are perished" (v.18). Remove the resurrection from Paul's

Gospel, and his message is gone. The resurrection of Jesus Christ

is not an appendage to Paul's Gospel; it is a constitutive part of

it.


The importance of this doctrine is very evident from the prominent

part it played in the preaching of the Apostles: Peter--Acts 2:24,

32; 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:40; 1 Peter 1:21, 23. Paul--Acts 13:30,

34; 17:31; 1 Cor. 15; Phil. 3:21. It was belief in such preaching

that led to the establishment of the Christian church. Belief in

the resurrection of Christ was the faith of the early church (Acts

4:33). The testimony to this great fact of Christian faith was borne

in the midst of the fiercest opposition. Nor was it controverted,

although the grave was well known and could have been pointed out.

It was in this fact that Christianity acquired a firm basis for

its historical development. There was not only an "Easter Message,"

there was also an "Easter Faith."


Our Lord's honor was, in a sense, staked upon the fact of His

resurrection. So important did He regard it that He remained forty

days upon the earth after His resurrection, giving many infallible

proofs of the great fact. He appealed to it again and again as

evidence of the truth of His claims: Matt. 12:39, 40; John 2:20-22.


Both the friends and the enemies of Christianity admit that the

resurrection of Jesus Christ is vital to the religion that bears His

name. The Christian confidently appeals to it as an incontrovertible

fact; the sceptic denies it altogether as a historical reality.

"If the resurrection really took place," says an assailant of it,

"then Christianity must be admitted to be what it claims to be--a

direct revelation from God." "If Christ be not risen," says the

Apostle Paul, "then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also

vain." The one tries all he can to do away with the proofs submitted

for the accepted fact; the other plainly says that if the resurrection

cannot be believed, then Christianity is nothing but a sham. If

the resurrection of Christ can be successfully denied, if it can be

proven to be absolutely untrue, then the whole fabric of the Gospel

falls to pieces, the whole structure of the Christian religion is

shaken at its foundation, and the very arch of Christianity crumbles

into dust. Then it has wrought only imaginary changes, deluded its

most faithful adherents, deceived and disappointed the hopes of

its most devoted disciples, and the finest moral achievements that

adorn the pages of the history of the Christian church have been

based upon a falsehood.


Nor must we ignore the prominent place the resurrection of Jesus

Christ occupies in the Scriptures. More than one hundred times is

it spoken of in the New Testament alone.


II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. JESUS CHRIST ACTUALLY DIED.


Some who disbelieve in the resurrection of Christ assert that Jesus

merely swooned, and that pitying hands took Him down from the cross,

thinking that He had died. The cool air of the tomb in which He was

placed revived Him, so that He came forth from the tomb as though

He had really risen from the dead. The disciples believed that He

had really died and risen again.


This theory is false for the following reasons:


Jesus Christ appeared to the disciples after the third day, not as

a weak, suffering, half-dead man, but as a conquering, triumphant

victor over death and the grave. He never could have made the

impression upon the disciples that He did, if He had presented the

picture of a sick, half-dead man.


From John 19:33-37 we learn that when the soldiers pierced the side

of Christ, _there came forth blood and water_. Physiologists

and physicists agree that such a condition of the vital organs,

including the heart itself, precludes the idea of a mere swoon,

and proves conclusively that death had taken place.


Joseph of Arimathaea asked permission to bury the body of Jesus

because he knew that Jesus had been pronounced dead (Matt. 27:57,

58).


When the news was brought to Pilate that Christ had died, it is

said that "Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling

unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while

dead. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to

Joseph" (Mark 15:44, 45).


The women brought spices to anoint a dead body, not a half-dead

Christ (Mark 16:1).


The soldiers pronounced Him dead: "But when they came to Jesus, and

saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs" (John 19:33).


Jesus Christ Himself, He who is the Truth, testifies to the fact

that He had really died: Rev. 1:18--"I am he that liveth, and was

dead."


2. THE FACT THAT CHRIST'S BODY WAS ACTUALLY RAISED FROM THE DEAD.


The resurrection of Christ is not a spiritual resurrection, nor

were his appearances to the disciples spiritual manifestations.

He appeared to His disciples in a bodily form. The body that was

laid in Joseph's tomb came forth on that first Easter morn twenty

centuries ago.


Some maintain that it is not vital to belief in the resurrection

of Christ that we insist on a literal resurrection of the body

of Jesus; all that we need to insist on is that Christ was ever

afterwards known to be the victor over death, and that He had the

power of an endless life. So it comes to pass that we have what is

called an "Easter Message," as contrasted with an "Easter Faith"

which believes in the literal resurrection of Jesus Christ from the

dead. "Faith has by no means to do with the knowledge of the form

in which Jesus lives, but only with the conviction that He is

the living Lord."--_Harnack_ in _What is Christianity?_

According to this theory, belief in Christ's resurrection means

nothing more than belief in the survival of the soul of Jesus--that

somehow or other Jesus was alive, and lived with God, while His

body yet saw corruption in the grave.


We reply: This cannot be, for all the facts in the Gospel narratives

contradict such a theory. Let us examine these narratives.


a) We are Confronted by the Fact of an Empty Tomb.


Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:6; Luke 24:3, 12; John 20:1, 2. The fact that

the tomb was empty is testified to by competent witnesses --both

friends and enemies: by the women, the disciples, the angels, and

the Roman guards. How shall we account for the absence of the body

of Jesus from the tomb? That it had not been stolen by outside parties

is evident from the testimony of the soldiers who were bribed to

tell that story (Matt. 28:11-15). Such a guard never would have

allowed such a thing to take place. Their lives would have been

thereby jeopardized. And if they were asleep (v. 13), how could

they know what took place? Their testimony under such circumstances

would be useless.


The condition in which the linen cloths were found lying by those

who entered the tomb precludes the possibility of the body being

stolen. Had such been the case the cloths would have been taken

with the body, and not left in perfect order, thereby showing that

the body had gone out of them. Burglars do not leave things in such

perfect order. There is no order in haste.


Then again, we have the testimony of angels to the fact that Jesus

had really risen as foretold (Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:6). The testimony

of angels is surely trustworthy (Heb. 2:2).


b) There are Other Resurrections Mentioned in the Gospel Records

which were Undoubtedly Bodily Resurrections.


Matt. 9:18-26; Luke 7:11-18; John 11:1-44. These incidents throw

light upon the resurrection of Jesus. Why did the officers say

that they were afraid "that his disciples should come by night and

steal him away" if they did not refer to the _body_ of Jesus?

They surely could not steal His soul.


c) Those Who Saw Him After the Resurrection Recognized Him as Having

the Same Body as He Had Before, Even to the Wound Prints.


John 20:27; Luke 24:37-39. It is true that there were occasions on

which He was not recognizable by the disciples, but such occasions

were the result of the eyes of the disciples being holden in order

that they might not know him. There was divine intervention on

these occasions. Does Christ still retain the prints of the nails?

Is He still the Lamb as though it had been slain? (Rev. 5 and 6).


d) There Can Be No Doubt of the Fact that the Apostle Paul Believed

in the Bodily Resurrection of Christ.


The Corinthians, to whom the apostle wrote that wonderful treatise

on the resurrection (1 Cor. 15), were not spending their time denying

a _spiritual_ resurrection; nor was the apostle spending his

time trying to produce convincing arguments for a _spiritual_

resurrection. (See also Rom. 8:11.)


e) It is Clear also from Christ's Own Testimony Before and After

the Resurrection.


Matt. 17:23; Luke 24:39; Rev. 1:18. No other construction can

legitimately be put upon these words than that Christ here refers

to the resurrection of His body.


f) The Apostolic Testimony Corroborates this Fact.


Acts 2:24-32; 1 Pet. 1:3, 21; 3:21. Peter was at the tomb; he it

was who stepped inside and saw the linen cloths lying. His testimony

ought to be beyond question as to the fact at issue.


g) The Record of the Appearances of Christ Prove a Literal, Physical

Resurrection.


Matt. 28:9, 10; John 20:14-18, cf. Mark 16:9; Luke 24:13-32; John

21, etc. All these appearances bear witness to the fact that it was

not an incorporeal spirit or phantom, but a real, bodily Christ that

they saw. He could be seen, touched, handled; He was recognizable;

He ate and drank in their presence.


h) Lastly, Many Passages in the Scriptures Would Be Unintelligible

Except on the Ground of a Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Christ from

the Grave.


Rom. 8:11, 23; Eph. 1:19, 20; Phil. 3:20, 21; 1 Thess. 4:13-17.


3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY OF CHRIST.


a) It was a Real Body; not a Ghost, nor a Phantom.


That the resurrection body of Jesus was not a phantom, but a body

composed of "flesh and bones" is evident from Luke 24:36-43. It

could be "touched" (John 20:20), and bore the marks of His passion

(John 20:24-29). The likeness to His earthly body was not wholly

parted with. [NOTE: Does this throw any light on the matter

of recognition in heaven? Has Jesus Christ still this body in the

glory? Shall we know Him by the prints?]


b) Yet the Body of Jesus was more than a mere Natural Body.


It bore marks and possessed attributes which proclaimed a relation

to the celestial or supra-terrestrial sphere. For example: It could

pass through barred doors (John 20:19), thus transcending physical

limitations. It was not recognizable at times (Luke 24: 13-16;

John 20:14, 15; 21:4, 12; Mark 16:12). This fact may be accounted

for in two ways: First, supernaturally--their eyes were holden;

Second, that in that risen life the spiritual controls the material

rather than as here, the material the spiritual; so that the spirit

could change the outward form of the body at will and at any given

time. [Yet, note how Jesus had power to make Himself known by little

acts, such as the breaking of the bread, and the tone of His voice.

Do we carry these little characteristics into the other life? Shall

we know our loved ones by these things?] Then again, Jesus was able

to vanish out of sight of His friends (Luke 24:31; John 20:19, 26;

Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9). And so He could be in different places at

very short intervals of time.


Can we explain these facts? No, not fully. Yet we must not be so

material as to totally disbelieve them. "Daily, indeed, are men

being forced to recognize that the world holds more mysteries than

they formerly imagined it to do. Probably physicists are not so

sure of the impenetrability of matter, or even of the conservation

of energy, as they once were; and newer speculations on the etheric

basis of matter, and on the relation of the seen to the unseen

universe (or universes) with forces and laws largely unknown, open

up vistas of possibility which may hold in them the key to phenomena

even as extraordinary as those in question."--_James Orr_.


c) Christ's Resurrection Body was Immortal.


Not only is it true that Christ's body has not seen death since His

resurrection, but it cannot die again. Rom. 6:9, 10; Rev. 1:18, cf.

Luke 20:36. [The lesson for us from this: Christ is the first-fruits

(1 Cor. 15:20).]


III. THE CREDIBILITY OF THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST.


Credibility refers to the acceptance of a fact in a manner that

deserves belief; it is belief based upon good authority, reliable

facts, and competent witnesses. Credulity is belief in a thing without

respect to the strength or weakness, reliability or unreliability of

the authority, facts, or witnesses; it is a believing too readily,

and with no reason for the faith or hope. The resurrection of

Christ is a fact proven by competent evidence, and deserving of

intelligent acceptance and belief. It is a doctrine buttressed by

"many infallible proofs."


The lines of proof for the credibility of Christ's resurrection

which may be followed in harmony with our purpose are as follows:


1. THE ARGUMENT FROM CAUSE AND EFFECT.


Certain things, conditions, institutions exist in our midst today;

they are effects of causes, or a cause; what is that cause? Among

these we may mention--


a) The Empty Tomb.


That was an effect; what was its cause? How did that grave become

empty? (See under II. a), p. 87). The fact of an empty tomb must be

accounted for. How do we account for it? Renan, the French sceptic,

wittingly said, and yet how truly: "You Christians live on the

fragrance of an empty tomb."


b) The Lord's Day.


The Lord's Day is not the original Sabbath. Who dared change it?

For what reason, and on what ground was it changed? Ponder the

tenacity with which the Jews held on to their Sabbath given in

Eden, and buttressed amid the thunders of Sinai. Recall how Jews

would sooner die than fight on the Sabbath day (cf. Titus' invasion

of Jerusalem on the Sabbath). The Jews never celebrated the birthdays

of great men; they celebrated events, like the Passover. Yet, in

the New Testament times we find Jews changing their time-honored

seventh day to the first day of the week, and, contrary to all

precedent, calling that day after a man--the Lord's Day. Here is an

effect, a tremendous effect; what was its cause? We cannot have

an effect without a cause. The resurrection of our Lord was the

cause for this great change in the day of worship.


c) The Christian Church.


We know what a grand and noble institution the Christian church

is. What would this world be without it? Its hymns, worship,

philanthropy, ministrations of mercy are all known to us. Where did

this institution come from? It is an effect, a glorious effect; what

is its cause? When the risen Christ appeared unto the discouraged

disciples and revived their faith and hope, they went forth, under

the all-conquering faith in a risen and ascended Lord, and preached

the story of His life, death, resurrection, ascension, and coming

again. Men believed these teachings; gathered themselves together

to study the Scriptures, to pray, to worship Christ, and to extend

His kingdom among men. This is how the church came into existence.

Its cause was the resurrection of Christ.


d) The New Testament.


If Jesus Christ had remained buried in the grave, the story of His

life and death would have remained buried with Him. The New Testament

is an effect of Christ's resurrection. It was the resurrection

that put heart into the disciples to go forth and tell its story.

Sceptics would have us believe that the resurrection of Christ

was an afterthought of the disciples to give the story of Christ's

life a thrilling climax, a decorative incident which satisfies

the dramatic feeling in man, a brilliant picture at the end of an

heroic life. We reply: There would have been no beautiful story

to put a climax to if there had been no resurrection of the Christ

of the story. The resurrection does not grow out of the beautiful

story of His life, but the beautiful story of Christ's life grew

out of the fact of the resurrection. The New Testament is the book

of the resurrection.


2. THE ARGUMENT FROM TESTIMONY.


a) As to the Number of the Witnesses.


The resurrection of Christ as a historical fact is verified by a

sufficient number of witnesses: over five hundred (1 Cor. 15:3-9).

In our courts, one witness is enough to establish murder; two,

high treason; three, the execution of a will; seven, an oral will.

Seven is the greatest number required under our law. Christ's

resurrection had five hundred and fourteen. Is not this a sufficient

number?


b) As to the Character of the Witnesses.


The value of the testimony of a witness depends much upon his

character; if that is impeached, then the testimony is discounted.

Scrutinize carefully the character of the men who bore witness to

the fact of Christ's resurrection. Impeach them if you can. They

are unassailable on ethical grounds. "No honorable opponent of the

Gospel has ever denied this fact. Their moral greatness awakened

an Augustine, a Francis of Assisi, and a Luther. They have been the

unrivalled pattern of all mature and moral manhood for nearly two

thousand years." In law much is made of the question of _motive_.

What motive could the apostles have had in perpetrating the story

of Christ's resurrection upon people? Every one of them (except

one) died a martyr's death for his loyalty to the story of Christ's

resurrection. What had they to gain by fraud? Would they have

sacrificed their lives for what they themselves believed to be an

imposture?


Nor are we to slight the testimony to Christ's resurrection that

comes to us from sources other than that of the inspired writers

of the New Testament. Ignatius, a Christian, and a contemporary of

Christ, a martyr for his faith in Christ, in his _Letter to the

Philadelphians_, says: "Christ truly suffered, as He also truly

raised up Himself. I _know_ that after the resurrection He was

in the flesh, and I believe Him to be so still. And when He came

to those who were with Peter, He said to them, 'Take, handle me,

and see that I am not an incorporeal phantom!'" Tertullian, in

his _Apolegeticus_, says: "The fame of our Lord's remarkable

resurrection and ascension being now spread abroad, Pontius Pilate,

according to an ancient custom of communicating novel occurrences

to the emperor, that nothing might escape him, transmitted to

Tiberius, Emperor of Rome, an account of the resurrection of our

Lord from the dead...Tiberius referred the whole matter to the

Senate, who, being unacquainted with the facts, rejected it." The

integrity of this passage is unquestioned by even the most sceptical

critics.


Alleged Discrepancies.


[Footnote: The following extract from Dr. Orr's book, _The

Resurrection of Jesus_, will throw some light on the matter

of differences in testimony, while maintaining the credibility of

the fact itself. "An instructive example is furnished in a recent

issue of the _Bibliotheca Sacra_. A class in history was studying

the French Revolution, and the pupils were asked to look the matter

up, and report next day by what vote Louis XVI was condemned. Nearly

half the class reported that the vote was unanimous. A considerable

number protested that he was condemned by a majority of one. A few

gave the majority as 145 in a vote of 721. How utterly irreconcilable

these reports seemed! Yet for each the authority of reputable

historians could be given. In fact, all were true, and the full

truth was a combination of all three. On the first vote as to the

king's guilt there was no contrary voice. Some tell only of this.

The vote on the penalty was given individually, with reasons, and

a majority of 145 declared for the death penalty, at once or after

peace was made with Austria, or after confirmation by the people.

The votes for immediate death were only 361 as against 360. History

abounds with similar illustrations. As an example of another kind,

reference may be made to Rev. R. J. Campbell's volume of _Sermons

Addressed to Individuals_, where, on pp. 145-6 and pp. 181-2,

the same story of a Brighton man is told with affecting dramatic

details. The story is no doubt true in substance; but for

'discrepancies'--let the reader compare them, and never speak more

(or Mr. Campbell either) of the Gospels!"]


The seeming differences in the testimony of the witnesses to the

resurrection may be largely, if not altogether reconciled by a

correct knowledge of the manner and order of the _appearances_

of Christ after His resurrection.


The following order of appearances may help in the understanding

of the testimony to the resurrection:


1. The women at the grave see the vision of angels.


2. The women separate at the grave to make known the news --Mary

Magdalene going to tell Peter and John, who doubtless lived close

by (for it seems that they reached the grave in a single run). The

other women go to tell the other disciples who, probably, were at

Bethany.


3. Peter and John, hearing the news, run to the grave, leaving

Mary. They then return home.


4. Mary follows; lingers at the grave; gets vision of the Master,

and command to go tell the disciples.


5. The other women see Christ on the way.


6. Christ appears to the two on the way to Emmaus.


7. To Simon Peter.


8. To the ten apostles, and other friends.


9. To the apostles at Tiberias.


10. To the apostles and multitude on the mount.


11. To the disciples and friends at the ascension.


12. To James (1 Cor. 15:7).


13. To Paul (1 Cor. 15:8).


IV. THE RESULTS OF THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. AS TO JESUS CHRIST HIMSELF.


Rom. 1:4--"And declared to be the Son of God with power, according

to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead." To

"declare" means to mark off, to define, to set apart (Acts 10:42;

Heb. 4:7). NOTE: Christ was not _made_ the Son of God by the

resurrection, but _declared_ such. Had Christ remained in the

grave as other men had done, there would then have been no reasonable

ground to impose faith in Him. The empty tomb testifies to the

deity of Christ.


Matt. 18:38-42; John 2:13-22. In these scriptures Jesus Christ bases

His authority for His teaching and the truth of all His claims on

His resurrection from the dead. (Cf. under I. 2, in this chapter,

p. 84.) See also Matt. 28:6--"Risen, as he said."


2. AS TO THE BELIEVER IN JESUS CHRIST.


a) Assures Him of His Acceptance with God.


Rom. 4:25--"Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised

again for our justification." So long as Christ lay in the grave

there was no assurance that His redemptive work had been acceptable

to God. The fact that God raised Jesus from the dead was evidence

that the Father was satisfied with the sacrifice Christ had made

for the sins of men. "Of righteousness, because I go unto my Father"

(John 16:10). Believing sinners may now rest satisfied that in Him

they are justified. This thought is illustrated by the picture of

the Jews waiting outside the temple for the coming out of the high

priest (Luke 1:21), thereby indicating that their sacrifice had

been accepted.


b) Assures of Him an Interceding High Priest in the Heavens.


Rom. 8:34--"Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea

rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God,

who also maketh intercession for us." Also Heb. 7:25. Salvation

was not completed at the Cross; there is still need of daily

forgiveness, and so of the continual presenting of the shed blood

before the mercy-seat. The accusations of Satan still need to be

answered (Zec. 3:1-5; Job 1 and 2; Heb. 7:25). We need a Moses,

not only to deliver us from bondage, but also to plead for us and

intercede for us because of our sins committed in the wilderness

journey. Herein is our assurance of forgiveness of sins committed

after conversion--that our great High Priest is always heard (John

11:42), and that He prays constantly for us that our faith fail

not (Luke 22:32). Our temporary falls shall not condemn us, for

our Priest intercedes for us.


c) Assures Him of All Needed Power for Life and Service.


Eph. 1:19-22--"The exceeding greatness of his power . . . which

he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set

him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all

principality, and power, and might, . . . and gave him to be the

head over all things to the church." Also Phil. 3:10. There are

two standards in the Bible by which God's power is gauged: In the

Old Testament, when God would have His people know the extent of His

power, it is according to the power by which He brought Israel out

of Egypt (Micah 7:15); in the New Testament, the unit of measurement

of God's power is "According to the working of his mighty power,

which he wrought in Christ . . . when he raised him from the

dead." The connection of Phil. 3:10 gives the believer the promise

and assurance not only of present power and victory, but also of

future glorification. If we desire to know what God is able to do

for and through us we are invited to look at the resurrection of

Jesus Christ.


d) The Assurance of His Own Resurrection and Immortality.


1 Thess. 4:14--"For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again,

even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him."


2 Cor. 4:14--"Knowing that he which raised up the Lord Jesus shall

raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present us with you." John

14:19--"Because I live, ye shall live also."


3. AS TO THE WORLD.


a) The Certainty of a Resurrection.


1 Cor. 15:22--"As in Adam all die; even so in Christ shall all

be made alive." Paul is here discussing a _bodily,_ and not

a _spiritual_, resurrection (see under II. 2 d), p. 88). As

in Adam all men die physically, so in Christ all men are raised

physically. The resurrection of Jesus Christ guarantees the

resurrection of all men (see under Resurrection, p. 245).


b) The Certainty of a Judgment Day.


Acts 17:31--"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will

judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained;

whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised

him from the dead." The resurrection of Christ is God's unfailing

testimony to the fact of a coming day of judgment for the world.

The one is as sure as the other.


The Ascension and Exaltation of Jesus Christ.


I. THE MEANING OF THESE TERMS.


When we speak of the _Ascension_ of Christ we refer to that

event in the life of our risen Lord in which He departed visibly

from His disciples into heaven. This event is recorded in Acts

1:9-11--"This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven,"

etc.


By the _Exaltation_ of Jesus Christ we mean that act of God

by which the risen and ascended Christ is given the place of power

at the right hand of God. Phil. 2:9--"Wherefore God also hath highly

exalted him and given him a name which is above every name." Eph.

1:20, 21--"Which he (God) wrought in Christ, when he raised him

from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly

places, far above all principality and power." See also Heb. 1:3.


II. THE SCRIPTURAL DATA FOR THE DOCTRINE.


Foregleams of this truth were granted to the prophets of the Old

Testament times, Psa. 110:1; 68:18. They saw Christ in prophetic

vision not only as the meek and lowly One, but as the ascended and

glorified Lord.


Our Lord Himself, on many occasions, foretold His ascension and

exaltation. These events were constantly before His mind's eye:

Luke 9:51; John 6:62; 20:17.


The New Testament writers record the event: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51;

John 3:13; Acts 1:9-11; Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 10:12.


Stephen, in his dying moments, was granted a vision of the exalted

Christ. He saw the "Son of Man standing on the right hand of God"

(Acts 7:55, 36).


The apostles taught and preached these great truths: Peter, Acts

2:33, 34; 5:31; 1 Peter 3:22. Paul: Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 4:14; 1 Tim.

3:16.


III. THE NECESSITY OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.


The nature of the resurrection body of our Lord necessitated

His ascension and exaltation. Such a body could not be subject to

ordinary laws; it could not permanently abide here.


Christ's unique personality also required such an exit from the

world. Should not the exit of Christ from this world be as unique

as His entrance into it? Then, again, consider the sinlessness of

His life. If a miraculous exit was granted to men like Elijah and

Enoch, who were sinful men, why should we marvel if such was granted

to Christ? Indeed it seems perfectly natural, and quite in keeping

with His whole life that just such an event as the ascension and

exaltation should form a fitting finish to such a wonderful career.


The ascension and exaltation were necessary to complete the redemptive

work of Christ. His work was not finished when He arose from the

dead. He had not yet presented the blood of the atonement in the

presence of the Father; nor had He yet been given His place at the

right hand of the Father as the bestower of all spiritual gifts,

and especially the gift of the Holy Spirit.


The apostles were thus able to furnish to an unbelieving and

inquisitive world a satisfactory account of the disappearance of

the body of Christ which had been placed in the tomb, and which

they claimed to have seen after the resurrection. "Where is your

Christ?" the scoffing world might ask. "We saw Him ascend up into

the heaven, and He is now at the Father's right hand," the apostles

could reply.


It was further necessary in order that Christ might become an ideal

object of worship for the whole human race. We should not forget

that Christ's earthly ministry was a purely local one: He could be

but in one place at a time. Those who worshipped at His feet in

Jerusalem could not, at the same time, worship Him in any other

place. This was the lesson, doubtless, that the Master desired to

teach Mary when she would fain hold on to Him, and when He said,

"Touch me not." Mary must worship now by faith, not by sight.


IV. THE NATURE OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. IT WAS A BODILY AND VISIBLE ASCENSION.


Acts 1:9-11; Luke 24:51. It was the same Christ they had known in

life, only glorified, who had tarried with them now for the space

of forty days, who had delivered unto them certain commandments,

and whose hands were even then outstretched in blessing that they

saw slowly vanishing from their view up into the heavens. It was

a body of flesh and bones, not flesh and blood. So will be our

translation (1 Cor. 15:51, 52).


2. HE PASSED UP THROUGH THE HEAVENS.


Heb. 4:14 (R. V.); Eph. 4:10; Heb. 7:26. Whatever and how many

created heavens there may be between the earth and the dwelling

place of God, we may not know, but we are here told that Christ

passed through them all, and up to the highest heaven, indeed was

made higher than the heavens. This means that He overcame all those

evil principalities and powers that inhabit these heavenlies (Eph.

6) and who doubtless tried their best to keep Him from passing

through the heavens to present His finished work before the Father.

Just as the high priest passed through the vail into the holy place,

so Christ passed through the heavens into the presence of God.


3. HE TOOK HIS PLACE AT THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER.


He was exalted to the right hand of God. Eph. 1:20--"Set him at his

own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality

and power." Col. 3:1--"Christ sitteth on the right hand of God."

This place was not taken by Christ without conflict with these

evil principalities and powers. But "He made a show of them openly,

triumphing over them in it" (Col. 2:15). See also Acts 5:31.


What is meant by "the right hand of God"? Is it a definite place,

or is it simply a figure of speech denoting a place of authority

and power? Why can not both things be included? God has His dwelling

place in heaven, and it is not incredible to believe that from the

throne there Christ exercises His divine prerogatives. Stephen

saw Christ standing at the right hand of God in heaven.


The "right hand of God" assuredly indicates the place of the

accuser whom Christ casts out (Zec. 3:1; Rev. 12:10); the place of

intercession which Christ now occupies (Rom. 8:34); the place of

acceptance where the Intercessor now sits (Psa. 110:1); the place

of highest power and richest blessing (Gen. 48:13-19); the place of

power (Psa. 110:5). All these powers and prerogatives are Christ's

by reason of His finished work of redemption.


V. THE PURPOSE OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. HE HAS ENTERED HEAVEN AS A FORERUNNER.


Heb. 6:20--"Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus."

The forerunner is one who enters into a place where the rest are

to follow; one who is sent before to make observations; a scout, a

spy. The Levitical high priest was not a forerunner; no one could

follow him. But where Christ goes His people may go also.


2. HE HAS GONE TO PREPARE A PLACE FOR HIS PEOPLE.


Heb. 9:21-24; John 14:2. He is there making all necessary preparations

for the coming of His bride, the Church. In some way it seems that

the heavenly sanctuary had been defiled by sin. It was necessary,

therefore, that Christ purge it with His blood. What a home that

will be if He prepares it!


3. HE IS NOW APPEARING BEFORE GOD IN OUR BEHALF.


Heb. 9:24--"To appear in the presence of God for us." He is there

to act as High Priest in our behalf; to present the blood of

atonement. "Before the throne my Surety stands." And yet not so

much before the throne as on the throne. He is the Kingly Priest.

With authority He asks, and His petitions are granted.


4. HE HAS TAKEN HIS PLACE AT THE FATHER'S RIGHT HAND THAT HE MAY

FILL ALL THINGS, AWAITING THE DAY WHEN HE SHALL HAVE UNIVERSAL

DOMINION.


Eph. 4:10. He fills all things with His presence, with His work,

with Himself. He is not a local Christ any longer (cf. Jer. 23:24).


Heb. 10:12, 13; Acts 3:20, 21--"He shall send Jesus Christ . . .

. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of

all things." Having won His victory, Christ is now waiting for

all the spoils to be gathered. He is expecting, not doubting, but

assuredly waiting; already His feet are upon the neck of the enemy.

The Apocalypse pictures Christ entering upon the actual possession

of His kingdom.


VI. THE RESULTS OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.


1. IT ASSURES US OF A FREE AND CONFIDENT ACCESS INTO THE PRESENCE

OF GOD.


Heb. 4:14-16 (R. V.)--"Having then a great high priest, who hath

passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast

our confession. . . . . Let us therefore draw near with boldness

unto the throne of grace." Our great High Priest is before the

throne to present petitions, secure pardons for His people, and

to communicate blessings in answer to their faith and prayers. We

may have a free and fearless confidence in our approach to God.


2. AN ASSURED HOPE OF IMMORTALITY.


2 Cor. 5:1-8 describes the longing of the Christian to be clothed

with a body after he has been called upon to lay aside this earthly

tabernacle. He has no desire for a bodiless existence. The ascension

and exaltation of Christ assures the believer that as Christ, so

he also will take his place in heaven with a body like unto Christ's

own glorious body.


3. IT GIVES THE BELIEVER CONFIDENCE IN GOD'S PROVIDENCE TO BELIEVE

THAT ALL THINGS ARE WORKING TOGETHER FOR HIS GOOD


Seeing that Christ, the believer's Head, is exalted far above all

things in heaven and earth, it is possible for the believer to be

master of circumstances, and superior to all his environment (Eph.

1:22; cf. Col. 1:15-18).


4. CHRIST HAS BEEN MADE HEAD OVER ALL THINGS FOR THE CHURCH.


That is to say, that everything is subject to Christ, and that for

the Church's sake. Eph. 1:22 (R. V.)--"And he put all things in

subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things

to the church." Christ is the fullness of the Father for the Church

(Col. 1:19; 2:9, 10). Christ bestows the Holy Spirit upon the

Church (Acts 2:33-36; John 7:37-39). He receives for, and bestows

upon the Church spiritual gifts (Eph. 4:8-12).







THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT


I. THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


   1. PERSONAL NAMES GIVEN TO THE SPIRIT.

   2. PERSONAL PRONOUNS USED OF THE SPIRIT.

   3. THE SPIRIT ASSOCIATED WITH THE FATHER AND THE SON.

   4. THE SPIRIT POSSESSES PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS.

   5. PERSONAL ACTS ARE ASCRIBED TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   6. THE SPIRIT IS SUBJECT TO PERSONAL TREATMENT.


II. THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


   1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO THE SPIRIT.

   2. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.

   3. DIVINE WORKS.

   4. NAME OF THE SPIRIT ASSOCIATED WITH NAMES OF THE DEITY.

   5. COMPARISON OF OLD TESTAMENT PASSAGES WITH SOME IN THE NEW

      TESTAMENT.


III. THE NAMES OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


   1. THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   2. THE SPIRIT OF GRACE.

   3. THE SPIRIT OF BURNING.

   4. THE SPIRIT OF TRUTH.

   5. THE SPIRIT OF LIFE.

   6. THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE.

   7. THE SPIRIT OF PROMISE.

   8. THE SPIRIT OF GLORY.

   9. THE SPIRIT OF GOD AND OF CHRIST.

 

IV. THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


   1. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD.

      a) The Universe.

      b) The World of Mankind.

   2. IN RELATION TO THE BELIEVER.

   3. IN RELATION TO THE SCRIPTURES.

   4. IN RELATION TO JESUS CHRIST.


V. OFFENCES AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT.


   1. BY THE SINNER.

      a) Resisting.

      b) Insulting.

      c) Blaspheming.

   2. BY THE BELIEVER.

      a) Grieving.

      b) Lying to.

      c) Quenching.






THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


We are living in the Age of the Spirit. The Old Testament period

may be called the Age of the Father; the period covered by the

Gospels, the Age of the Son; from Pentecost until the second advent

of Christ, the Age of the Spirit.


All matters pertaining to the doctrine of the Holy Spirit should,

therefore, be of special interest to us who live in this age

of special privilege. Yet how ignorant is the average Christian

concerning matters pertaining to the Spirit. The Christian church

today needs to heed Paul's exhortation: "Now concerning spiritual

gifts (or, perhaps better, "matters pertaining to the Spirit"),

I would not have you ignorant." May it not be that the reason why

the sin against the Holy Spirit is so grievous is because it is a

sin committed in the light and with the knowledge of the clearest

and fullest revelation of the Godhead. We cannot, therefore, afford

to remain in ignorance of this all-important doctrine.


I. THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


It seems strange that it should be necessary to discuss this phase

of the subject at all. Indeed, in the light of the last discourse

of the Master (John 14-16), it seems superfluous, if not really

insulting. During all the ages of the Christian era, however, it

has been necessary to emphasize this phase of the doctrine of the

Spirit (cf. Arianism, Socinianism, Unitarianism).


1. WHY IS THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT QUESTIONED?


a) Because, as Contrasted with the Other Persons of the Godhead,

the Spirit Seems Impersonal.


The visible creation makes the personality of God the Father

somewhat easy to conceive; the incarnation makes it almost, if not

altogether, impossible to disbelieve in the personality of Jesus

Christ; but the acts and workings of the Holy Spirit are so secret

and mystical, so much is said of His influence, graces, power and

gifts, that we are prone to think of Him as an influence, a power,

a manifestation or influence of the Divine nature, an agent rather

than a Person.


b) Because of the Names Given to the Holy Spirit.


He is called _breath, wind, power._ The symbols used in

speaking of the Spirit are _oil, fire, water,_ etc. See John

3:5-8; Acts 2:1-4; John 20:22; 1 John 2:20. It is not strange that

in view of all this some students of the Scriptures may have been

led to believe, erroneously of course, that the Holy Spirit is an

impersonal influence emanating from God the Father.


c) Because the Holy Spirit is not usually Associated with the Father

and the Son in the Greetings and Salutation of the New Testament.


For illustration, see 1 Thess. 3:11--"Now God himself and our Father,

and our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you." Yet we must

remember, in this connection, that the Apostolic Benediction in 2

Cor. 13:14 does associate the three persons of the Trinity, thereby

asserting their personality equally.


d) Because the Word or Name "Spirit" is Neuter.


It is true that the same Greek word is translated _wind_ and

_Spirit;_ also that the Authorized Version uses the neuter

pronoun "itself," when speaking of the Holy Spirit (Rom. 8:16, 26).

As we shall see later, the Revised Version substitutes "himself"

for "itself."


The importance of the personality of the Spirit, and of our being

assured of this fact is forcibly set forth by Dr. R. A. Torrey:

"If the Holy Spirit is a Divine Person and we know it not, we are

robbing a Divine Being of the love and adoration which are His due.

It is of the highest practical importance whether the Holy Spirit

is a power that we, in our ignorance and weakness, are somehow to

get hold of and use, or whether the Holy Spirit is a personal Being

. . . . who is to get hold of us and use us. It is of the highest

experimental importance. . . . . Many can testify to the blessing

that came into their lives when they came to know the Holy Spirit,

not merely as a gracious influence . . . . but as an ever-present,

loving friend and helper."


2. METHOD OF PROOF.


It is difficult to define _personality_ when used of the

Divine Being. God cannot be measured by human standards. God was

not made in the image of man, but man in the image of God. God is

not a deified man; man is rather a limited God ("a little . . ..

less than God." Heb. 2:7, R. V.). Only God has a perfect personality.

When, however, one possesses the attributes, properties and qualities

of personality, then personality may be unquestionably predicated

of such a being. Does the Holy Spirit possess such properties? Let

us see.


a) Names that Imply Personality are Given to the Spirit.


_The Comforter:_ John 14:16; 16:7. "Comforter" means one who

is called to your side--as a client calls a lawyer. That this name

cannot be used of any abstract, impersonal influence is clear from

the fact that in 1 John 2:1 the same word is used of Christ. (See

Rom. 8:26). Again in John 14:16 the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete,

is to take the place of a person--Christ Himself, and to personally

guide the disciples just as Jesus had been doing. No one but a

person can take the place of a person; certainly no mere influence

could take the place of Jesus Christ, the greatest personality

that ever lived. Again, Christ, in speaking of the Spirit as the

Comforter, uses the masculine definite article, and thus, by His

choice of gender, teaches the personality of the Holy Spirit. There

can be no parity between a person and an influence.


b) Personal Pronouns are Used of the Holy Spirit.


John 16:7, 8, 13-15: Twelve times in these verses the Greek masculine

pronoun _ekeinos_ (that one, He) is used of the Spirit. This

same word is used of Christ in 1 John 2:6; 3:3, 5, 7, 16. This is

especially remarkable because the Greek word for spirit (_pneuma_)

is neuter, and so should have a neuter pronoun; yet, contrary

to ordinary usage, a masculine pronoun is here used. This is

not a pictorial personification, but a plain, definite, clear-cut

statement asserting the personality of the Holy Spirit. Note also

that where, in the Authorized Version, the neuter pronoun is used,

the same is corrected in the Revised Version: not "itself," but

"Himself" (Rom. 8:16,26).


c) The Holy Spirit is Identified with the Father and the Son--and,

indeed, with Christians--in Such a Way as to Indicate Personality.


The Baptismal Formula. Matt. 28:19. Suppose we should read,

"Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of

_the wind or breath_." Would that sound right? If the first

two names are personal, is not the third? Note also: "In the name"

(singular), not names (plural), implying that all three are Persons

equally,


The Apostolic Benediction. 2 Cor. 13:14. The same argument may be

used as that in connection with the Baptismal Formula, just cited.


Identification with Christians. Acts 15:28. "For it seemeth good

to the Holy Ghost, and to us." Shall we say, "It seemeth good to

_the wind_ and to us"? It would be absurd. 10:38--"How God

anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power."

Shall we read, "Anointed .. with _power_ and power?" Rom.

15:13--"That ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy

Ghost." Shall we read, "That ye may abound in hope, through the

power of the _power_"? See also Luke 4:14. Would not these

passages rebel against such tautological and meaningless usage?

Most assuredly.


d) Personal Characteristics are Ascribed to the Holy Spirit.


The Holy Spirit is represented as searching the deepest and

profoundest truths of God, and possessing knowledge of His counsels

sufficiently to understand His purposes (1 Cor. 2:10, 11). Could

a mere influence do this? See also Isa. 11:3; I Pet. 1:11.


Spiritual gifts are distributed to believers according to the

_will_ of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12). Here is wisdom, prudence and

discretion, all of which are distinguishing marks of personality.

The Spirit not only bestows spiritual gifts, but bestows them

discreetly, according as He thinks best. See John 3:8 also.


The Spirit is said to have a _mind_, and that implies thought,

purpose, determination: Rom. 8:27, cf. v. 7. Mind is an attribute

of personality.


e) Personal Acts are Ascribed to the Holy Spirit.


The Spirit _speaks_: Rev. 2:7 (cf. Matt. 17:5--"Hear ye him.")

It is the Spirit who speaks through the apostles (10:20). Speech

is an attribute of personality.


The Spirit _maketh intercession:_ Rom. 8:26 (R. V.), cf. Heb.

7:25; I John 2:1, 2, where Christ is said to "make intercession."


Acts 13:2; 16:6, 7; 20:28. In these passages the Holy Spirit is

seen _calling_ missionaries, _overseeing_ the church,

and _commanding_ the life and practice of the apostles and

the whole church. Such acts indicate personality.


f) The Holy Spirit is Susceptible to Personal Treatment.


He may be _grieved_ (Eph. 4:30); _insulted_ (Heb. 10.29);

_lied to_ (Acts 5:3); blasphemed and sinned against (Matt.

12:31, 32). Indeed, the sin against the Holy Spirit is a much more

grievous matter than the sin against the Son of Man. Can such be

said of an influence? Can it be said even of any of the sons of

men?


II. THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


By the Deity of the Holy Spirit is meant that the Holy Spirit is God.

This fact is clearly set forth in the Scriptures, in a five-fold

way:


1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.


In Acts 5:4, the Spirit is called _God_. And this in opposition

to man, to whom, alone, Ananias thought he was talking. Can any

statement allege deity more clearly? In 2 Cor. 3:18--"We .... are

transformed into the same image from glory to glory, even as from

the Lord the Spirit" (R. V.)*. Here the Spirit is called the _Lord_.

For the meaning of "Lord" see under the Deity of Christ, p. 60.


* [SLBC NOTE: The quote from the American Standard Edition

of the Revised Bible, from which came several new translations, including

what is currently called The Revised Standard Version, leads to an

erroneous use of this verse as a proof text for the deity of the Holy Spirit.

Here, as in very many cases, the use of the wrong "bible" which gives

the wrong translation leads to wrong meaning for the verse and the

wrongful use of it as is plainly seen here in this case. There are other verses

that could be used as proof texts. It is never necessary to resort to the

use of a corrupt version. In fact it is confusing.]



2. THE HOLY SPIRIT POSSESSES DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.


He is _eternal_ in his nature (Heb. 9:14, R. V.); _omnipresent_

(Psa. 139:7-10); _omnipotent_ (Luke 1:35); _omniscient_

(1 Cor. 2:10, 11). For the meaning of these attributes, see under

the Doctrine of God and Jesus Christ, pp. 28 and 63.


3. DIVINE WORKS ARE ASCRIBED TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.


_Creation_ (Gen. 1:2; Psa. 104:30, R. V.); Job 33:4--"The Spirit

of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me

life." _Regeneration_ (John 3:5-8); _Resurrection_ (Rom.

8:11).


4. THE NAME OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IS ASSOCIATED WITH THAT OF THE

FATHER, AND OF THE SON.


See under Personality of the Spirit, p. 107. The same arguments

which there prove the Personality of the Spirit may be used here to

prove the Deity of the Spirit. It would be just as absurd to say,

"Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of

_Moses_"--thus putting Moses on an equality with the Father

and the Son--as it would be to say, "Baptizing them in the name of

the Father, and of the Son, and of the _wind_"--thus making

the wind as personal as the Father and the Son. The Spirit is

on an equality with the Father and the Son in the distribution of

spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 12:4-6).


5. PASSAGES WHICH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT REFER TO GOD ARE IN THE

NEW TESTAMENT MADE TO REFER TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.


Compare Isa. 6:8-10 with Acts 28:25-27; and Exod. 16:7 with Heb.

3:7-9.


III. THE NAMES OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


Just as the Father and the Son have certain names ascribed to them,

setting forth their nature and work, so also does the Holy Spirit

have names which indicate His character and work.


1. THE HOLY SPIRIT.


Luke 11:13--"How much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy

Spirit to them that ask Him?" Rom. 1:4--"The Spirit of holiness."

In these passages it is the moral character of the Spirit that

is set forth. Note the contrast: "Ye, being evil," and "the Holy

Spirit." The Spirit is _holy_ in Himself and produces holiness

in others.


2. THE SPIRIT OF GRACE.


Heb. 10:29--"And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace." As

the executive of the Godhead, the Spirit confers grace. To resist

the Spirit, therefore, is to shut off all hope of salvation. To

resist His appeal is to insult the Godhead. That is why the punishment

mentioned here is so awful.


3. THE SPIRIT OF BURNING.


Matt. 3:11, 12--"He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with

fire." Isa. 4:4--"When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of

the daughters of Zion.... by the spirit of judgment and the spirit

of burning." This cleansing is done by the blast of the Spirit's

burning. Here is the searching, illuminating, refining, dross-consuming

character of the Spirit. He burns up the dross in our lives when

He enters and takes possession.


4. THE SPIRIT OF TRUTH.


John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13; I John 5:6. As God is Love, so the Spirit

is Truth. He possesses, reveals, confers, leads into, testifies to,

and defends the truth. Thus He is opposed to the "spirit of error"

(1 John 4:6).


5. THE SPIRIT OF LIFE.


Rom. 8:2--"For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath

made me free from the law of sin and death." That which had been

the actuating principle of life, namely, the flesh, is now deposed,

and its controlling place taken by the Spirit. The Spirit is thus

the dynamic of the believer's experience that leads him into a life

of liberty and power.


6. THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE.


That the references in Isa. 11:2; 61:1, 2 are to be understood

as referring to the Spirit that abode upon the Messiah, is clear

from Luke 4:18 where "Spirit" is capitalized. Christ's wisdom and

knowledge resulted, in one aspect of the case, from His being filled

with the Spirit. "Wisdom and understanding" refer to intellectual

and moral apprehension; "Counsel and might," the power to scheme,

originate, and carry out; "Knowledge and the fear of the Lord,"

acquaintance with the true will of God, and the determination

to carry it out at all costs. These graces are the result of the

Spirit's operations on the heart.


7. THE SPIRIT OF PROMISE.


Eph. 1:13--"Ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise." The

Spirit is the fulfillment of Christ's promise to send the Comforter,

and so He is the promised Spirit. The Spirit also confirms and seals

the believer, and thus assures him that all the promises made to

him shall be completely fulfilled.


8. THE SPIRIT OF GLORY.


1 Pet. 4:14--"The spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you."

What is glory? Glory as used in the Scripture means character.

The Holy Spirit is the One who produces godlike character in the

believer (cf. 2 Cor. 3:18).


9. THE SPIRIT OF GOD, AND OF CHRIST.


1 Cor. 3:16--"The Spirit of God dwelleth in you." Rom. 8:9--"Now

if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." The

fact that the Spirit is sent from the Father and the Son, that He

represents them, and is their executive, seems to be the thought

conveyed here.


10. THE COMFORTER (p. 109).


IV. THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.


The Work of the Spirit may be summed up under the following headings:

His work in the universe; in humanity as a whole; in the believer;

with reference to the Scriptures; and, finally, with reference to

Jesus Christ.


1. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD.


a) With Regard to the Universe.


There is a sense in which the creation of the universe may be

ascribed to God's Spirit. Indeed Psa. 33:6--"By the word of the

Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath

(Spirit) of his mouth," attributes the work of creation to the

Trinity, the Lord, the Word of the Lord, and the Spirit of the Lord.

The creation of man is attributed to the Spirit. Job 33:4--"The

Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath

given me life." It would be proper, doubtless, to say that the

Father created all things through the agency of the Word and the

Spirit. In the Genesis account of creation (1:3) the Spirit is seen

actively engaged in the work of creation.


Not only is it true that the Spirit's agency is seen in the act of

creation, but His power is seen also in the preservation of nature.

Isa. 40:7--"The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, because the

spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it." A staggering declaration.


THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT


The Spirit comes in the fierce east wind with its keen, biting

blast of death. He comes also in the summer zephyr, which brings

life and beauty.


b) With Regard to Humanity as a Whole.


John 16:8-11--"And when He is come, he will reprove the world of

sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment; of sin, because they

believe not on me; of righteousness, because I go unto my Father

and ye see me no more; of judgment, because the prince of this

world is judged." Here are three great facts of which the Spirit

bears witness to the world: the sin of unbelief in Christ; the

fact that Christ was righteous and absolutely true in all that He

claimed to be; the fact that the power of Satan has been broken. Of

sin: the sin in which all other sins are embraced; of righteousness:

the righteousness in which all other righteousness is manifested and

fulfilled; of judgment: the judgment in which all other judgments

are decided and grounded. Of sin, belonging to man; of righteousness,

belonging to Christ; of judgment, belonging to Satan.


John 15:26--"The Spirit of truth ... shall testify of me." Acts

5:32--"And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the

Holy Ghost." It is the work of the Holy Spirit to constantly bear

witness of Christ and His finished work to the world of sinful and

sinning men. This He does largely, although hardly exclusively,

through the testimony of believers to the saving power and work

of Christ: "Ye also shall bear witness" (John 15:27).


2. THE WORK OF THE SPIRIT IN RELATION TO THE BELIEVER.


a) He Regenerates the Believer.


John 3:3-5--"Born of ... the Spirit." Tit. 3:5--"The... renewing

of the Holy Ghost." Sonship, and membership in the kingdom of God,

come only through the regenerating of the Holy Spirit. "It is the

Spirit that quickeneth." Just as Jesus was begotten of the Holy Ghost,

so must every child of God who is to be an heir to the kingdom.


b) The Spirit Indwells the Believer.


1 Cor. 6:19--"Your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is

in you." Also 3:16; Rom. 8:9. Every believer, no matter how weak

and imperfect he may be, or how immature his Christian experience,

still has the indwelling of the Spirit. Acts 19:2 does not contradict

this statement. Evidently some miraculous outpouring of the Spirit

is intended there, the which followed the prayer and laying on of

the hands of the apostles. "Now if any man have not the Spirit of

Christ, he is none of his." "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord,

but by the Holy Ghost" (Rom. 8:9; 1 Cor. 12:3).


c) The Spirit Seals the Believer with Assurance of Salvation.


Eph. 1:13, 14--"In whom also after that ye believed, ye were

sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise; which is the earnest of

our inheritance." Also 4:30--"Sealed unto the day of redemption."

This sealing stands for two things: ownership and likeness (2 Tim.

2:19-21). The Holy Spirit is "the Spirit of adoption" which God

puts into our hearts, by which we know that we are His children.

The Spirit bears witness to this great truth (Gal. 4:6; Rom. 8:14,

16). This sealing has to do with the heart and the conscience--satisfying

both as to the settlement of the sin and sonship question.


d) The Holy Spirit Infills the Believer.


Acts 2:4--"And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost." Eph.

5:18--"Be filled with the Spirit." The filling differs somewhat from

the indwelling. We may speak of the baptism of the Spirit as that

initial act of the Spirit by which, at the moment of our regeneration,

we are baptized by the Spirit into the body of Christ; the Spirit

then comes and takes up His dwelling within the believer. The

filling with the Spirit, however, is not confined to one experience,

or to any one point of time exclusively; it may be repeated times

without number. There is one baptism, but many infillings with the

Spirit. The experience of the apostles in the Acts bears witness to

the fact that they were repeatedly filled with the Spirit. Whenever

a new emergency arose they sought a fresh infilling with the Spirit

(cf. Acts 2:4 with 4:31 showing that the apostles who were filled

on the day of Pentecost were again filled a few days after).


There is a difference between possessing the Spirit, and being

filled with the Spirit. All Christians have the first; not all have

the second, although all may have. Eph. 4:30 speaks of believers

as being "sealed," whereas 5:18 commands those same believers to

"be filled (to be being filled again and again) with the Spirit."


Both the baptism and the infilling may take place at once. There

need be no long wilderness experience in the life of the believer.

It is the will of God that we should be filled (or, if you prefer

the expression, "be baptized") with the Spirit at the moment of

conversion, and remain filled all the time. Whenever we are called

upon for any special service, or for any new emergency, we should

seek a fresh infilling of the Spirit, either for life or service,

as the case may be.


The Holy Spirit seeks--so we learn from the story of the Acts--for

men who are not merely possessed by but also filled with the Spirit,

for service (6:3, 5; 9:17; 11:24). Possession touches assurance;

infilling, service.


e) The Holy Spirit Empowers the Believer for Life and Service.


Rom. 8:2--"For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath

made me free from the law of sin and death" (also vv. 9-11). There

are two natures in the believer: the flesh and the Spirit (Gal.

5:17). But while the believer is still in the flesh, he does not

live after the flesh (Rom. 8:12, 13). The Holy Spirit enables the

believer to get constant and continual victory over sin. A single

act of sin a believer may commit; to live in a state of sin is

impossible for him, for the Spirit which is within him gives him

victory, so that sin does not _reign_ over him. If sinless

perfection is not a Scriptural doctrine, sinful imperfection is

certainly less Scriptural. The eighth chapter of Romans exhibits

a victorious life for the believer; a life so different from that

depicted in the seventh chapter. And the difference lies in the

fact that the Holy Spirit is hardly, if at all, mentioned in the

seventh chapter, while in the eighth He is mentioned over twelve

times. The Spirit in the heart is the secret of victory over sin.


Then note how the Holy Spirit produces the blessed fruit of the

Christian life (Gal. 5:22, 23). What a beautiful cluster of graces!

How different from the awful catalogue of the works of the flesh

(vv. 19-21). Look at this cluster of fruit. There are three groups:

the first, in relation to God--love, joy, peace; the second, in

relation to our fellowman--longsuffering, gentleness, goodness;

the third, for our individual Christian life--faith, meekness,

self-control.


f) The Holy Spirit is the Guide of the Believer's Life.


He guides him as to the details of his daily life, Rom. 8:14; Gal.

5:16, 25-"Walk in the Spirit." There is no detail of the believer's

life that may not be under the control and direction of the Spirit.

"The steps (and, as one has well said, 'the stops') of a good man

are ordered by the Lord."


The Holy Spirit guides the believer as to the field in which

he should labor. How definitely this truth is taught in the Acts

8:27-29; 16:6, 7; 13:2-4. What a prominent part the Spirit played

in selecting the fields of labor for the apostles! Every step in

the missionary activity of the early church seemed to be under the

direct guidance of the Spirit.


g) The Holy Spirit Anoints the Believer.


This anointing stands for three things:


First, for _knowledge and teaching_. 1 John 2:27--"But the

anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye

need not that any man teach you; but as the same anointing teacheth

you of all things, and is truth . . . ye shall abide in him." Also

2:20. It is not enough to learn the truth from human teachers, we

must listen to the teaching of the Spirit. 1 Cor. 2:9-14 teaches

us that there are some great truths that are spiritually discerned;

they cannot be understood saving by the Spirit-filled man, for they

are "spiritually discerned." See also John 14:26; 16:13.


Second, for _service_. How dependent Christ was upon the Holy

Spirit for power in which to perform the duties of life is clear

from such passages as Luke 4:18--"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,

because he hath anointed me to preach," etc. Also Acts 10:38--"How

God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power:

who went about doing good." Ezekiel teaches a lesson by his vivid

picture of the activity of God portrayed in the wheels within wheels.

The moving power within those wheels was the Spirit of God. So in

all our activity for God we must have the Spirit of power.


Third, for _consecration_. Three classes of persons in the Old

Testament were anointed: the prophet, the priest, and the king.

The result of anointing was consecration--"Thy vows are upon

me, O God"; knowledge of God and His will--"Ye know all things";

influence--fragrance from the ointment. Just as the incense at

Mecca clings to the pilgrim when he passes through the streets, so

it is with him who has the anointing of the Spirit. All his garments

smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia. He has about him the sweet

odor and scent of the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the Valley.


3. THE RELATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT TO THE SCRIPTURES.


a) He is the Author of the Scriptures.


Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. 2

Pet. 1:20, 21. The Scriptures came by the inbreathing of God, 2

Tim. 3:16. "Hear what the Spirit saith to the churches," Eph. 2

and 3. It was the Spirit who was to guide the apostles into all

the truth, and show them things to come (John 16:13).


b) The Spirit is also the Interpreter of the Scriptures.


1 Cor. 2:9-14. He is "the Spirit of wisdom and revelation," Eph.

1:17. "He shall receive of mine and show it unto you," John 16:14,

15. (See under the Inspiration of the Bible, p. 194.)


4. THE RELATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT TO JESUS CHRIST.


How dependent Jesus Christ was, in His state of humiliation, on the

Holy Spirit! If He needed to depend solely upon the Spirit can we

afford to do less?


a) He was Conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Spirit, Luke

1:35.


b) He was led by the Spirit, Matt. 4:1.


c) He was Anointed by the Spirit for Service, Acts 10:38.


d) He was Crucified in the Power of the Spirit, Heb. 9:14.


e) He was Raised by the Power of the Spirit, Rom. 1:4; 8:11.


f) He gave Commandment to His Disciples and Church Through the

Spirit, Acts 1:2.


g) He is the Bestower of the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:33.


V. OFFENCES AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT.


Scarcely any phase of the doctrine of the Spirit is more solemn

than this. It behooves us all, believer and unbeliever alike, to

be careful as to how we treat the Holy Spirit. Sinning against the

Spirit is fraught with terrific consequences.


For convenience sake we are classifying the offences against the

Spirit under two general divisions, namely, those committed by the

unbeliever, and those committed by the believer. Not that there is

absolutely no overlapping in either case. For, doubtless, in the

very nature of the case there must be. This thought will be kept

in mind in the study of the offences against the Spirit.


1. OFFENCES COMMITTED BY THE UNBELIEVER.


a) Resisting the Holy Ghost.


Acts 7:51-"Ye do always resist the Holy Ghost." Here the picture is

that of the Holy Spirit attacking the citadel of the soul of man,

who violently resists the gracious attempts of the Spirit to win

him. In spite of the plainest arguments, and the most incontestable

facts this man wilfully rejects the evidence and refuses to

accept the Christ so convincingly presented. Thus is the Holy Ghost

resisted. (See Acts 6:10.) That this is a true picture of resistance

to the Holy Spirit is clearly seen from Stephen's recital of the

facts in Acts 7:51-57.


b) Insulting, or Doing Despite unto the Holy Spirit.


Heb. 10:29 (cf. Luke 18:32). It is the work of the Spirit to present

the atoning work of Christ to the sinner as the ground of his

pardon. When the sinner refuses to believe or accept the testimony

of the Spirit, he thereby insults the Spirit by esteeming the whole

work of Christ as a deception and a lie, or accounts the death of

Christ as the death of an ordinary or common man, and not as God's

provision for the sinner.


c) Blaspheming the Holy Spirit.


Matt. 12:31,32. This seems to be the most grievous sin of all,

for the Master asserts that there is no forgiveness for this sin.

Sins against the Son of Man may be forgiven because it was easily

possible, by reason of His humble birth, lowly parentage, etc., to

question the claims He put forth to deity. But when, after Pentecost,

the Holy Spirit came, and presented to every man's conscience

evidence sufficient to prove the truth of these claims, the man who

then refused to yield to Christ's claims was guilty of resisting,

insulting, and that amounts to blaspheming the testimony of the

whole Godhead, of which the Spirit is the executive.


2. OFFENCES COMMITTED BY THE BELIEVER.


a) Grieving the Spirit.


Eph. 4:30, 31; Isa. 63:10 (R. V.). To grieve means to make sad or

sorrowful. It is the word used to describe the experience of Christ

in Gethsemane; and so the sorrow of Gethsemane may be endured by

the Holy Spirit. The Spirit is the most sensitive person of the

Godhead. He is called the "Mother--heart" of God. The context

of this passage (v.31) tells us how the Spirit may be grieved: by

"foolish talking and jesting." Whenever the believer allows any of

the things mentioned in this verse (and those stated also in Gal.

5:17-19) to find place in his heart and expression in his words

and life; when these things abide in his heart and actively manifest

themselves, then the Spirit is sad and grieved. Indeed to refuse

any part of our moral nature to the full sway of the Spirit is to

grieve Him. If we continue to grieve the Spirit, then the grief

turns into vexation (Isa. 63:10).


b) Lying to the Holy Spirit.


Acts 5:3, 4. The sin of lying to the Spirit is very prominent when

consecration is most popular. We stand up and say, "I surrender

all" when in our hearts we know that we have not surrendered

_all_. Yet, like Ananias, we like to have others believe that

we have consecrated our all. We do not wish to be one whit behind

others in our profession. Bead carefully in this connection the

story of Achan (Joshua 7), and that of Gehazi (2 Kings 5:20-27).


c) Quenching the Spirit.


1 Thess. 5:19-"Quench not the Spirit." The thought of quenching

the Spirit seems to be used in connection with fire: "Smoking flax

shall he not quench" (Matt. 12:20); "Quench the fiery darts" (Eph.

6:16). It is therefore related more to the thought of service than

to that of life. The context of 1 Thess. 5:19 shows this. The

manifestation of the Spirit in prophesying was not to be quenched.

The Holy Spirit is seen as coming down upon this gathered assembly

for praise, prayer, and testimony. This manifestation of the Spirit

must not be quenched. Thus we may quench the Spirit not only in

our hearts, but also in the hearts of others. How? By disloyalty

to the voice and call of the Spirit; by disobedience to His voice

whether it be to testify, praise, to do any bit of service for God,

or to refuse to go where He sends us to labor--the foreign field,

for example. Let us be careful also lest in criticizing the manifestation

of the Spirit in the testimony of some believer, or the sermon of

some preacher, we be found guilty of quenching the Spirit. Let us

see to it that the gift of the Holy Ghost for service be not lost

by any unfaithfulness, or by the cultivation of a critical spirit

on our part, so that the fire in our hearts dies out and nothing

but ashes remain--ashes, a sign that fire was once there, but has

been extinguished.


From what has been said the following may be summarily stated:


_Resisting_ has to do with the regenerating work of the Spirit;


_Grieving_ has to do with the indwelling Holy Spirit;


_Quenching_ has to do with the enduement of the Spirit for

service.







THE DOCTRINE OF MAN


I. THE CREATION AND ORIGINAL CONDITION OF MAN.


   1. IMAGE AND LIKENESS OF GOD.

   2. PHYSICAL--MENTAL--MORAL--SPIRITUAL.


II. THE FALL OF MAN.


   1. THE SCRIPTURAL ACCOUNT.

   2. VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS.

   3. THE NATURE OF THE FALL.

   4. THE RESULTS OF THE FALL.


      a) On Adam, and Eve.

      b) On the Race.

         (1) Various Theories.

         (2) Scriptural Declarations.






THE DOCTRINE OF MAN.


I. THE CREATION AND ORIGINAL CONDITION OF MAN.


1. MAN MADE IN THE IMAGE AND LIKENESS OF GOD.


Gen. 1:26--"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our

likeness." 9:6--"For in the image of God made he man." What is

meant by the terms _image_ and _likeness_? _Image_

means the shadow or outline of a figure, while _likeness_

denotes the resemblance of that shadow to the figure. The two

words, however, are practically synonymous. That man was made in

the image and likeness of God is fundamental in all God's dealings

with man (1 Cor. 11:7; Eph. 4:21-24; Col. 3:10; James 3:9). We

may express the language as follows: Let us make man in our image

to be our likeness.


a) The Image of God Does Not Denote Physical Likeness.


God is Spirit; He does not have parts and passions as a man.

(See under Doctrine of God; The Spirituality of God, pp. 19, 20).

Consequently Mormon and Swedenborgian views of God as a great

human are wrong. Deut. 4:15 contradicts such a physical view of

God (see p. 19, b, c). Some would infer from Psa. 17:15--"I shall

be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness," that in some remote

way, a physical likeness is suggested. The R. V., however, changes

somewhat the sense of this verse, and reads: "I shall be satisfied,

when I awake, with _beholding_ thy form." See also Num. 12:8,

R. V. It is fair to believe, however, that erectness of posture,

intelligence of countenance, and a quick, glancing eye characterized

the first man. We should also remember that the manifestations in

the Old Testament, and the incarnation must throw some light upon

this subject (see p. 20).


b) Nor Are the Expressions "Image" and "Likeness" Exhausted When

We Say That They Consisted in Man's Dominion Over Nature, and the

Creation of God in General.


Indeed the supremacy conferred upon man presupposed those spiritual

endowments, and was justified by his fitness, through them, to

exercise it.


c) Positively, We Learn from Certain Scriptures in What This Image

and Likeness Consisted.


Eph. 4:23, 24--"And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; and that

ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness

and true holiness (B. V., holiness of truth)." Col. 3:10--"And have

put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image

of him that created him." It is clear from these passages that the

image of God consists in knowledge, righteousness, and holiness;

moral, not physical likeness.


d) The Original Man Was Endowed with Intellectual Faculties.


He had sufficient intelligence to give names to the animals as

they were presented before him (Gen. 2:19, 20). Adam had not only

the power of speech, but the power of reasoning and thought in

connection with speech. He could attach words to ideas. This is not

the picture, as evolution would have us believe, of an infantile

savage slowly groping his way towards articulate speech by imitation

of the sounds of animals.


e) The Original Man Possessed Moral and Spiritual Faculties.


Consider the moral test in Genesis 3. Adam had power to resist or

to yield to moral evil. Sin was a volitional thing. Christ, the

second Adam, endured a similar test (Matt. 4).


From all this it is evident that man's original state was not one

of savagery. Indeed there is abundant evidence to show that man

has been degraded from a very much higher stage. Both the Bible

and science agree in making man the crowning work of God, and that

there will be no higher order of beings here on the earth than man.

We must not forget that while man, from one side of his nature,

is linked to the animal creation, he is yet supra-natural--a being

of a higher order and more splendid nature; he is in the image

and likeness of God. Man has developed not _from_ the ape,

but _away from_ it. He never was anything but potential man.

"No single instance has yet been adduced of the transformation of

one animal species into another, either by natural or artificial

selection; much less has it been demonstrated that the body of the

brute has ever been developed into that of the man. The links that

should bind man to the monkey have not been found. Not a single

one can be shown. None have been found that stood nearer the monkey

than the man of today."--_Agassiz_.


II. THE FALL OF MAN.


The doctrine of the Fall of Man is not peculiar to Christianity;

all religions contain an account of it, and recognize the great

and awful fact. Had there been no such account as that found in

Genesis 3, there would still have remained the problem of the fall

and sin.


Yet, the doctrine of the fall has a relation to Christianity that

it does not have to other religions, or religious systems. The moral

character of God as seen in the Christian religion far surpasses the

delineation of the Supreme Being set forth in any other religion,

and thus heightens and intensifies its idea of sin. It is when men

consider the very high character of God as set forth in Christianity,

and then look at the doctrine of sin, that they find it hard to

reconcile the fact that God, being the moral Being He is, should

ever allow sin to come into the world. To some minds these two

things seem incompatible.


1. THE SCRIPTURAL ACCOUNT OF THE FALL OF MAN.


The third chapter of Genesis gives the fullest account of this

awful tragedy in the experience of mankind. Other scriptures: Rom.

5:12-19; I Tim. 2:14; Gen. 6:5; 8:31; Psa. 14; Rom. 3:10-23.


The purpose of the Genesis narrative is not to give an account

of the manner in which sin came into the _world,_ but how it

found its advent into the _human race_. Sin was already in

the world, as the existence of Satan and the chaotic condition of

things in the beginning, strikingly testify.


The reasonableness of the narrative of the fall is seen in view of

the condition of man after he had sinned with his condition when

he left the hand of the Creator. Compare Gen. 1:26 with 6:5, and

Psa. 14. If the fall of man were not narrated in Genesis we should

have to postulate some such event to account for the present

condition in which we find man. In no part of the Scripture, save

in the creation account as found in the first two chapters of

Genesis, does man appear perfect and upright. His attitude is that

of rebellion against God, of deepening and awful corruption.


2. VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF THE NARRATIVE OF THE FALL OF MAN.


Some look upon the whole narrative as being an _allegory_.

Adam is the rational part of man; Eve, the sensual; the serpent,

external excitements to evil. But the simplicity and artlessness

of the narrative militates against this view.


Others, again, designate the narrative as being a _myth_. It

is regarded as a truth invested in poetic form; something made up

from the folklore of the times. But why should these few verses be

snatched out of the chapter in which they are found and be called

mythical, while the remaining verses are indisputably literal?


Then there is the _literal interpretation_, which takes the

account as it reads, in its perfectly natural sense, just as in the

case of the other parts of the same chapter. There is no intimation

in the account itself that it is not to be regarded as literal

history. It certainly is part of a historical book. The geographical

locations in connection with the story are historic. The curse upon

the man, upon the woman, and upon the ground are certainly literal.

It is a fact that death is in the world as the wages of sin.

Unquestionably Christ, and the other Scripture writers regard the

event as historical and literal: of. Matt. 19:4; Mark 10:6; 2 Cor.

11:3; I Tim. 2:13-15; I Cor. 15:56.


3. THE NATURE OF THE FALL.


It must be kept in mind that Adam and Eve were free moral agents.

That while they were sinless beings, it was yet possible for them

to sin, just as it was possible for them not to sin. A careful

reading of the narrative leads to the following remarks:


The sin of our first parents was purely volitional; it was an act

of their own determination. Their sin was, like all other sin, a

voluntary act of the will.


It came from an outside source, that is to say, it was instigated

from without. There was no sin in the nature of the first human pair.

Consequently there must have been an ungodly principle already in

the world. Probably the fall of Satan and the evil angels had taken

place already.


The essence of the first sin lay in the denial of the divine will;

an elevation of the will of man over the will of God.


It was a deliberate transgressing of a divinely marked boundary;

an overstepping of the divine limits.


In its last analysis, the first sin was, what each and every sin

committed since has been, a positive disbelief in the word of the

living God. A belief of Satan rather than a belief in God.


It is helpful to note that the same lines of temptation that were

presented to our first parents, were presented to Christ in the

wilderness (Matt. 4:1-11), and to men ever since then (1 John

2:15-17). Satan's program is short and shallow after all.


4. THE RESULTS OF THE FALL.


a) On Our First Parents--Adam and Eve.


The results of sin in the experience of our first parents were as

follows:


The ground was cursed, so that henceforth it would not yield good

alone (Gen. 3:17).


Sorrow and pain to the woman in child-bearing, and subjection of

woman to the man (Gen. 3:16).


Exhausting physical labor in order to subsist (Gen. 3:19).


Physical and spiritual death (Gen. 3:19; 3:3; 5:5; Rom. 5:12).


Of course, with all this came also a fear of God, a shame because

of sin, a hiding from God's presence, and finally, an expulsion

from the garden (Gen. 3:8-11, 32-24).


b) On the Race--Various Theories.


There are three general views held with regard to the effect of

Adam's sin upon the race. Before looking at the strictly Scriptural

view in detail, let us briefly state these three theories:


That Adam's sin affected himself only; that every human being born

into the world is as free from sin as Adam was. The only effect the

first sin had upon the race was that of a bad example. According to

this theory man is well morally and spiritually. This view of the

case is false because the Scriptures recognize all men as guilty and

as possessing a sinful nature; because man, as soon as he attains

the age of responsibility commits sinful acts, and there is no exception

to this rule; because righteousness is impossible without the help

of God, otherwise redemption would be by works of righteousness

which we have done, and this the Scripture contradicts. According

to this view man is perfectly well. (The Pelagian theory.)


That while Adam's sin, as guilt, is not imputed to man, he is yet

destitute of original righteousness, and, without divine help,

is utterly unable to attain it. God, however, bestows upon each

individual, at the dawn of consciousness, a special gift of His

Spirit, which is sufficient to enable man to be righteous, if he

will allow his will to _co-operate_ with God's Spirit. According

to this view man is only half sick, or half well. This view also

is false because the Scriptures clearly state that man is utterly

unable to do a single thing to save himself. (The Semi-Pelagian

theory.)


That because of the unity of the race in Adam, and the organic unity

of mankind, Adam's sin is therefore imputed to his posterity. The

nature which man now possesses is like to the corrupted nature

of Adam. Man is totally unable to do anything to save himself.

According to this theory man is not only not well, nor half well,

but totally dead. ( The Augustinian theory.)


SCRIPTURAL TEACHING.


(1) All men, without respect of condition or class, are sinners

before God.


Rom. 3:9, 10, 22, 23; Psa. 14; Isa. 53:6. There may be a difference

in the degree, but not in the fact of sin. All men, Jew and Gentile,

have missed the mark, and failed to attain to God's standard. There

is none righteous, no, not one.


(2) This universal sinful condition is vitally connected with the

sin of Adam.


Rom. 5:12--"Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world,

and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all

have sinned." "For the judgment was by one to condemnation" (5:16).

"For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners" (5:19).

All men were in Adam when he sinned; fallen he, fallen they. Herein

lies the truth of the organic unity of the race. "In Adam all die."

Two questions are raised here: How can man be held responsible for

a depraved nature?--this touches the matter of _original sin_;

and How can God justly impute Adam's sin to us?--this deals with

the question of the _imputation of sin_.


(3) The whole world rests under condemnation, wrath, and curse.


Rom. 3:19--"That every mouth may be stopped, and all the world

may become guilty before God." Gal. 3:10; Eph. 2:3. The law of

God demands a perfect obedience; but no son of man can yield such

obedience; hence the curse of a broken law rests upon those breaking

it. The wrath of God abides on all not vitally united by faith to

Jesus Christ (John 3:36).


(4) Unregenerate men are regarded as children of the devil, and

not sons of God.


1 John 3:8-10; John 8:44--"Ye are of your father the devil." 1 John

5:19--"And we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth

in wickedness (in the wicked one, R. V.)."


(5) The whole race of men are in helpless captivity to sin and

Satan.


Rom. 7, chapter entire; John 8:31-36; Eph. 2:3.


(6) The entire nature of man, mentally, morally, spiritually,

physically, is sadly affected by sin.


The _understanding_ is darkened (Eph. 4:18; 1 Cor. 2:14); the

_heart_ is deceitful and wicked (Jer. 17:9, 10); the _mind

and conscience_ are defiled (Gen. 6:5; Titus 1:15); the

_flesh and spirit_ are defiled (2 Cor. 7:5); the _will_

is enfeebled (Rom. 7:18); and we are utterly destitute of any Godlike

qualities which meet the requirements of God's holiness (Rom. 7:18).


What does all this mean? A. H. Strong, in his _Systematic

Theology_, explains the matter somewhat as follows: It does not

mean the entire absence of conscience (John 8:9); nor of all moral

qualities (Mark 10:21); nor that men are prone to every kind of

sin (for some sins exclude others). It does mean, however, that

man is totally destitute of love to God which is the all absorbing

commandment of the law (John 5:42); that the natural man has

an aversion to God (Rom. 8:7); that all that is stated under (6)

above is true of man; that man is in possession of a nature that

is constantly on the downgrade, and from the dominion of which he

is totally unable to free himself (Rom. 7:18, 23).


[Illustration with caption: Handwritten notations of Rev. William

Evans, Ph.D. D.D.]






THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION

 

A. REPENTANCE.

B. FAITH.

C. REGENERATION.

D. JUSTIFICATION.

E. ADOPTION.

F. SANCTIFICATION.

G. PRAYER.





THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION.


A. REPENTANCE.

   I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.

   II. THE NATURE OF REPENTANCE.

       1. AS TOUCHING THE INTELLECT.

       2. AFFECTING THE EMOTIONS.

       3. WILL.

          a) Confess Sin.

          b) Forsake Sin.

          c) Turn to God.

   III. HOW REPENTANCE IS PRODUCED.

       1. DIVINE SIDE.

       2. HUMAN SIDE.

       3. QUESTION OF MEANS.

   IV. RESULTS OF REPENTANCE.

       1. GODWARD.

       2. MANWARD.


A. REPENTANCE.


I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.


The prominence given to the doctrine of Repentance in the Scriptures

can hardly be overestimated. John the Baptist began his public

ministry, as did Jesus also, with the call to repentance upon his

lips (Matt. 3:1, 2; 4:17).


When Jesus sent forth the twelve and the seventy messengers to

proclaim the good news of the kingdom of heaven, He commanded them

to preach repentance (Luke 24:47; Mark 6:12).


Foremost in the preaching of the apostles was the doctrine of

repentance; Peter, (Acts 2:38); Paul, (Acts 20:21).


The burden of the heart of God, and His one command to all men

everywhere, is that they should repent (2 Pet. 3:9; Acts 17:30).


Indeed, failure on the part of man to heed God's call to repentance

means that he shall utterly perish (Luke 13:3).


Does the doctrine of repentance find such a prominent place in

the preaching and teaching of today? Has the need for repentance

diminished? Has God lessened or changed the terms of admission into

His kingdom?


II. THE NATURE OF REPENTANCE.


There is a three-fold idea involved in true repentance:


1. AS TOUCHING THE INTELLECT.


Matt. 21:29--"He answered and said: I will not; but afterward

he repented, and went". The word here used for "repent" means

to change one's mind, thought, purpose, views regarding a matter;

it is to have another mind about a thing. So we may speak of it

as a revolution touching our attitude and views towards sin and

righteousness. This change is well illustrated in the action of

the Prodigal Son, and of the Publican in the well-known story of

the Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 15 and 18). Thus, when Peter,

on the day of Pentecost, called upon the Jews to repent (Acts

2:14-40), he virtually called upon them to change their minds and

their views regarding Christ. They had considered Christ to be a

mere man, a blasphemer, an impostor. The events of the few preceding

days had proven to them that He was none other than the righteous

Son of God, their Saviour and the Saviour of the world. The result

of their repentance or change of mind would be that they would

receive Jesus Christ as their long promised Messiah.


2. AS TOUCHING THE EMOTIONS.


2 Cor. 7:9--"Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that

ye sorrowed to repentance; for ye were made sorry after a godly

manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing." The context

(vv. 7-11) shows what a large part the feelings played in true Gospel

repentance. See also Luke 10:13; cf. Gen. 6:6. The Greek word for

repentance in this connection means "to be a care to one afterwards,"

to cause one great concern. The Hebrew equivalent is even stronger,

and means to pant, to sigh, to moan. So the publican "beat upon

his breast," indicating sorrow of heart. Just how much emotion is

necessary to true repentance no one can definitely say. But that a

certain amount of heart movement, even though it be not accompanied

with a flood of tears, or even a single tear, accompanies all true

repentance is evident from the use of this word. See also Psa.

38:18.


3. AS TOUCHING THE WILL AND DISPOSITION.


One of the Hebrew words for repent means "to turn." The prodigal

said, "I will arise.... and he arose" (Luke 15:18, 20). He not

only thought upon his ways, and felt sorry because of them, but he

turned his steps in the direction of home. So that in a very real

sense repentance is a crisis with a changed experience in view.

Repentance is not only a heart broken _for_ sin, but _from_

sin also. We must forsake what we would have God remit. In the

writings of Paul repentance is more of an experience than a single

act. The part of the will and disposition in repentance is shown:


a) In the Confession of Sin to God.


Psa. 38:18--"For I will declare mine iniquity: I will be sorry

for my sin." The publican beat upon his breast, and said, "God be

merciful to me a sinner" (Luke 18:13). The prodigal said, "I have

sinned against heaven" (Luke 15:21).


There must be confession to man also in so far as man has been

wronged in and by our sin (Matt. 5:23, 24; James 5:16).


b) In the Forsaking of Sin.


Isa. 55:7--"Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous

man his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord." Prov. 28:13;

Matt. 3:8, 10.


c) In Turning Unto God.


It is not enough to turn away from sin; we must turn unto God; 1

Thess. 1:9; Acts 26:18.


III. HOW REPENTANCE IS PRODUCED.


1. IT IS A DIVINE GIFT.


Acts 11:18--"Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance

unto life." 2 Tim. 2:25--"If God peradventure will give them repentance

to the acknowledging of the truth." Acts 5:30, 31. Repentance is

not something which one can originate within himself, or can pump

up within himself as one would pump water out of a well. It is a

divine gift. How then is man responsible for not having it? We are

called upon to repent in order that we may feel our own inability

to do so, and consequently be thrown upon God and petition Him to

perform this work of grace in our hearts.


2. YET THIS DIVINE GIFT IS BROUGHT ABOUT THROUGH THE USE OF MEANS.


Acts 2:37, 38, 41. The very Gospel which calls for repentance

produces it. How well this is illustrated in the experience of the

people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:5-10)! When they heard the preaching

of the word of God by Jonah they believed the message and turned

unto God. Not any message, but the Gospel is the instrument that

God uses to bring about this desired end. Furthermore, this message

must be preached in the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Thess. 1:5-10).


Rom. 2:4--"Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and

forbearance and long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness of

God leadeth thee to repentance?" Also 2 Pet. 3:9. Prosperity too

often leads away from God, but it is the divine intention that it

should lead to God. Revivals come mostly in times of panic.


Rev. 3:19; Heb. 12:6, 10, 11. The chastisements of God are sometimes

for the purpose of bringing His wandering children back to repentance.


2 Tim. 2:24, 25. God oftentimes uses the loving, Christian reproof

of a brother to be the means of bringing us back to God.


IV. THE RESULTS OF REPENTANCE.


1. ALL HEAVEN IS MADE GLAD.


Luke 15:7, 10. Joy in heaven, and in the presence of the angels

of God. Makes glad the heart of God, and sets the bells of heaven

ringing. Who are those "in the presence of the angels of God"? Do

the departed loved ones know anything about it?


2. IT BRINGS PARDON AND FORGIVENESS OF SIN.


Isa. 55:7; Acts 3:19. Outside of repentance the prophets and apostles

know of no way of securing pardon. No sacrifices, nor religious

ceremonies can secure it. Not that repentance merits forgiveness,

but it is a condition of it. Repentance qualifies a man for a

pardon, but it does not entitle him to it.


3. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS POURED OUT UPON THE PENITENT.


Acts 2:38--"Repent... and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy

Ghost." Impenitence keeps back the full incoming of the Spirit into

the heart.


B. FAITH.


I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.


II. THE DEFINITION OF FAITH.


1. IN GENERAL:


a) Knowledge.


b) Assent.


c) Appropriation.


2. IN PARTICULAR:


a) Towards God.


b) Towards Christ.


c) In Prayer.


d) In the Word of God.


3. RELATION OF FAITH TO WORKS.


III. THE SOURCE OF FAITH.


1. THE DIVINE SIDE.


2. THE HUMAN SIDE.


3. MEANS USED.


IV. SOME RESULTS OF FAITH.


1. SAVED.


2. JOY AND PEACE.


3. DO GREAT WORKS.


B. FAITH.


I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.


Faith is fundamental in Christian creed and conduct. It was the

one thing which above all others Christ recognized as the paramount

virtue. The Syrophoenician woman (Matt. 15) had perseverance; the

centurion (Matt. 8), humility; the blind man (Mark 10), earnestness.

But what Christ saw and rewarded in each of these cases was faith.

Faith is the foundation of Peter's spiritual temple (2 Pet. 1:5-7);

and first in Paul's trinity of graces (1 Cor. 13:13). In faith

all the other graces find their source.


II. THE DEFINITION OF FAITH.


Faith is used in the Scriptures in a general and in a particular

sense.


1. ITS GENERAL MEANING:


a) Knowledge.


Psa. 9:10--"And they that know thy name will put their trust in

thee." Rom. 10:17--"So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by

the word of God." Faith is not believing a thing without evidence;

on the contrary faith rests upon the best of evidence, namely,

the Word of God. An act of faith denotes a manifestation of the

intelligence: "How shall they believe in him of whom they have not

heard?" Faith is no blind act of the soul; it is not a leap in the

dark. Such a thing as believing with the heart without the head

is out of the question. A man may believe with his head without

believing with his heart; but he cannot believe with his heart

without believing with his head too. The heart, in the Scriptures,

means the whole man--intellect, sensibilities, and will. "As a man

_thinketh_ in his heart." "Why _reason_ ye these things

in your hearts?"


b) Assent.


Mark 12:32--"And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast

said the truth." So was it with the faith which Christ demanded in

His miracles: "Believe ye that I am able to do this?" "Yea, Lord."

There must not only be the knowledge that Jesus is able to save, and

that He is the Saviour of the world; there must be also an assent

of the heart to all these claims. Those who, _receiving_ Christ

to be all that He claimed to be, _believed_ in Him, became

thereby sons of God (John 1:12).


c) Appropriation.


John 1:12; 2:24. There must be an appropriation of the things

which we know and assent to concerning the Christ and His work.

Intelligent perception is not faith. A man may know Christ as

divine, and yet aside from that reject him as Saviour. Knowledge

affirms the reality of these things but neither accepts nor rejects

them. Nor is assent faith. There is an assent of the mind which

does not convey a surrender of the heart and affections.


Faith is the consent of the will to the assent of the understanding.

Faith always has in it the idea of action--movement towards its

object. It is the soul leaping forth to embrace and appropriate the

Christ in whom it believes. It first says: "My Lord and my God,"

and then falls down and worships.


A distinction between believing about Christ and on Christ is made

in John 8:30, 31, R. V.--"Many believed _on_ him.... Jesus

therefore said to those Jews that had believed _him_."


S. THE MEANING OF FAITH IN PARTICULAR:


a) When Used in Connection with the Name of God.


Heb. 11:6--"But without faith it is impossible to please him;

for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is

a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." Also Acts 27:22-25;

Rom. 4:19-21 with Gen. 15:4-6. There can be no dealings with the

invisible God unless there is absolute faith in His existence. We

must believe in His reality, even though He is unseen. But we must

believe even more than the fact of His existence; namely, that He

is a rewarder, that He will assuredly honor with definite blessing

those who approach unto Him in prayer. Importunity will, of course,

be needed (Luke 11:5-10).


There must be confidence in the Word of God also. Faith believes all

that God says as being absolutely true, even though circumstances

seem to be against its fulfillment.


b) When Used in Connection with the Person and Work of Christ.


Recall the three elements in faith, and apply them here.


First, there must be a _knowledge_ of the claims of Christ as

to His person and mission in the world: As to His person--that He

is deity, John 9:35-38; 10:30; Phil. 2:6-ll. As to His work--Matt.

20:28; 26:26-28; Luke 24:27, 44.


Second, there must be an _assent_ to all these claims, John

16:30; 20:28; Matt. 16:16; John 6:68, 69.


Third, there must be a personal _appropriation_ of Christ as

being all that He claims to be, John 1:12, 8:21, 24; 5:24. There

must be surrender to a person, and not mere faith in a creed. Faith

in a doctrine must lead to faith in a person, and that person Jesus

Christ, if salvation is to be the result of such belief. So Martha

was led to substitute faith in a doctrine for faith in a person

(John 11:25).


It is such faith--consisting of knowledge, assent, and appropriation

--that saves. This is believing with the heart (Rom. 10:9,10).


c) When Used in Connection with Prayer.


Three passages may be used to set forth this relationship: 1 John

5:14, 15; James 1:5-7, Mark 11:24. There must be no hesitation

which balances between belief and unbelief, and inclines toward

the latter--tossed one moment upon the shore of faith and hope,

the next tossed back again into the abyss of unbelief. To "doubt"

means to reason whether or no the thing concerning which you are

making request can be done (Acts 10:20; Rom. 4:20). Such a man

only conjectures; he does not really believe. Real faith thanks God

for the thing asked for, if that thing is in accord with the will

of God, even before it receives it (Mark 11:24). Note the slight:

"that man."


We must recognize the fact that knowledge, assent, and appropriation

exist here also. We must understand the promises on which we base

our prayer; we must believe that they are worth their full face

value; and then step out upon them, thereby giving substance to that

which, at the moment may be unseen, and, perchance, nonexistent,

so far as our knowledge and vision are concerned, but which to

faith is a splendid reality.


d) When Used in Connection with the Word and Promise of God.


First, we should know whether the particular promise in question is

intended for us in particular. There is a difference in a promise

being written _for_ us and _to_ us. There are dispensational

aspects to many of the promises in the Bible, therefore we must

rightly divide, apportion, and appropriate the Word of God (cf. I

Cor. 10:32).


Second, when once we are persuaded that a promise is _for_

us, we must believe that God means all He says in that promise;

we must assent to all its truth; we must not diminish nor discount

it. God will not, cannot lie (Titus 1:2).


Third, we must appropriate and act upon the promises. Herein lies

the difference between belief and faith. Belief is mental; faith

adds the volitional; we may have belief without the will, but not

faith. Belief is a realm of thought; faith is a sphere of action.

Belief lives in the study; faith comes out into the market-places

and the streets. Faith substantiates belief--gives substance, life,

reality, and activity to it (Heb. 11:1). Faith puts belief into

active service, and connects possibilities with actualities. Faith

is acting upon what you believe; it is appropriation. Faith counts

every promise valid, and gilt-edged (Heb. 11:11); no trial can

shake it (11:35); it is so absolute that it survives the loss of

its own pledge even (11:17). For illustration, see I Kings 18:41-43.


3. THE RELATION OF FAITH TO WORKS.


There is no merit in faith alone. It is not mere faith that saves,

but faith in Christ. Faith in any other saviour but Christ will

not save. Faith in any other gospel than that of the New Testament

will not save (Gal. 1:8, 9).


There is no contradiction between Paul and James touching the

matter of faith and works (cf. James 2:14-26; Rom. 4:1-12). Paul

is looking at the matter from the Godward side, and asserts that we

are justified, in the sight of God, _meritoriously_, without

absolutely any works on our part. James considers the matter from

the manward side, and asserts that we are justified, in the sight

of man, _evidentially_, by works, and not by faith alone

(2:24). In James it is not the _ground_ of justification, as

in Paul, but the _demonstration_. See under Justification,

II. 4, p. 159.


III. THE SOURCE OF FAITH.


There are two sides to this phase of the subject--a divine and a

human side.


1. IT IS THE WORK OF THE TRIUNE GOD. _God the Father_: Rom.

12:3; I Cor. 12. This is true of faith both in its beginning (Phil.

1:29) and its development (1 Cor. 12). Faith, then, is a gift of

His grace.


_God the Son_: Heb. 12:2--"Looking unto Jesus the author and

finisher of our faith." (Illustration, Matt. 14:30, 31--Peter taking

his eyes off Christ.) I Cor. 12; Luke 17:5.


_God the Spirit_: Gal. 5:22; I Cor. 12:9. The Holy Spirit is

the executive of the Godhead.


Why then, if faith is the work of the Godhead, are we responsible

for not having it? God wills to work faith in all His creatures,

and will do so if they do not resist His Holy Spirit. We are

responsible, therefore, not so much for the lack of faith, but for

resisting the Spirit who will create faith in our hearts if we will

permit Him to do so.


2. THERE IS ALSO A HUMAN SIDE TO FAITH.


Rom. 10:17--"So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by

the word of God." (cf. the context, vv. 9-21.) Acts 4:4--"Howbeit

many of them which heard the word believed." In this instance the

_spoken_ word, the Gospel, is referred to; in other cases the

written Word, the Scriptures, are referred to as being instrumental

in producing faith. See also Gal. 3:2-5. It was a looking unto the

promises of God that brought such faith into the heart of Abraham

(Rom. 4:19).


Prayer also is an instrument in the development of faith. Luke is

called the _human_ Gospel because it makes so much of prayer,

especially in connection with faith: 22:32--"But I have prayed for

thee that thy faith fail not." 17:5--"And the apostles said unto

the Lord, Increase our faith." See also Mark 9:24; Matt. 17:19-21.


Our faith grows by the use of the faith we already have. Luke 17:5,

6; Matt. 25:39.


IV. SOME RESULTS OF FAITH.


1. WE ARE SAVED BY FAITH.


We, of course, recall that the saving power of faith resides not

in itself, but in the Almighty Saviour on whom it rests; so that,

properly speaking, it is not so much faith, as it is faith in Christ

that saves.


The whole of our salvation--past, present, and future, is dependent

upon faith. Our acceptance of Christ (John 1:12); our justification

(Rom. 5:1); our adoption (Gal. 3:26); our sanctification (Acts

26:18); our keeping (1 Pet. 1:5), indeed our whole salvation from

start to finish is dependent upon faith.


2. REST, PEACE, ASSURANCE, JOY.


Isa. 26:3; Phil. 4:6; Rom. 5:1; Heb. 4:1-3; John 14:1; 1 Pet. 1:8.

Fact, faith, feeling--this is God's order. Satan would reverse

this order and put feeling before faith, and thus confuse the child

of God. We should march in accord with God's order: Fact leads,

Faith with its eye on Fact, following, and Feeling with the eye on

Faith bringing up the rear. All goes well as long as this order is

observed. But the moment Faith turns his back on Fact, and looks

at Feeling, the procession wobbles. Steam is of main importance,

not for sounding the whistle, but for moving the wheels; and if

there is a lack of steam we shall not remedy it by attempting by

our own effort to move the piston or blow the whistle, but by more

water in the boiler, and more fire under it. Feed Faith with Facts,

not with Feeling.--_A. T. Pierson_.


3. DO EXPLOITS THROUGH FAITH.


Heb. 11:32-34; Matt. 21:21; John 14:12. Note the wonderful things

done by the men of faith as recorded in the eleventh chapter of

Hebrews. Read vv. 32-40. Jesus attributes a kind of omnipotence to

faith. The disciple, by faith, will be able to do greater things

than his Master. Here is a mighty Niagara of power for the believer.

The great question for the Christian to answer is not "What can I

do?" but "How much can I believe?" for "all things are possible to

him that believeth."



C. REGENERATION, OR THE NEW BIRTH.


I. ITS NATURE.

   1. NOT BAPTISM.

   2. NOT REFORMATION.

   3. A SPIRITUAL QUICKENING.

   4. AN IMPARTATION OF A DIVINE NATURE.

   5. A NEW AND DIVINE IMPULSE.


II. ITS NECESSITY.

   1. UNIVERSAL.

   2. THE SINFUL CONDITION OF MAN DEMANDS IT.

   3. THE HOLINESS OF GOD DEMANDS IT.


III. THE MEANS.

   1. THE DIVINE SIDE.

   2. THE HUMAN SIDE.

   3. THE MEANS USED.


C. REGENERATION, OR THE NEW BIRTH.



It is of the utmost importance that we have a clear understanding

of this vital doctrine. By Regeneration we are admitted into

the kingdom of God. There is no other way of becoming a Christian

but by being born from above. This doctrine, then, is the door of

entrance into Christian discipleship. He who does not enter here,

does not enter at all.


I. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION.


Too often do we find other things substituted by man for God's

appointed means of entrance into the kingdom of heaven. It will be

well for us then to look, first of all, at some of these substitutes.


1. REGENERATION IS NOT BAPTISM.


It is claimed that John 3:5--"Except a man be born of water and of

the Spirit," and Titus 3:5--"The washing of regeneration," teach

that regeneration may occur in connection with baptism. These

passages, however, are to be understood in a figurative sense,

as meaning the cleansing power of the Word of God. See also

Eph. 5:26--"With the washing of water by (or in) the word"; John

15:3--"Clean through the word." That the Word of God is an agent

in regeneration is clear from James 1:18, and 1 Pet. 1:23.


If baptism and regeneration were identical, why should the Apostle

Paul seem to make so little of that rite (1 Cor. 4:15, and compare

with it 1 Cor. 1:14)? In the first passage Paul asserts that he had

_begotten_ them through the Gospel; and in 1:14 he declares

that he _baptized none of them_ save Crispus and Gaius. Could

he thus speak of baptism if it had been the means through which

they had been begotten again? Simon Magus was baptized (Acts 8),

but was he saved? Cornelius (Acts 11) was saved even before he was

baptized.


2. REFORMATION IS NOT REGENERATION.


Regeneration is not a natural forward step in man's development;

it is a supernatural act of God; it is a spiritual crisis. It is

not evolution, but involution--the communication of a new life. It

is a revolution--a change of direction resulting from that life.

Herein lies the danger in psychology, and in the statistics regarding

the number of conversions during the period of adolescence. The

danger lies in the tendency to make regeneration a natural phenomenon,

an advanced step in the development of a human life, instead of

regarding it as a crisis. Such a psychological view of regeneration

denies man's sin, his need of Christ, the necessity of an atonement,

and the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit.


3. REGENERATION IS A SPIRITUAL QUICKENING, A NEW BIRTH.


Regeneration is the impartation of a new and divine life; a new

creation; the production of a new thing. It is Gen. 1:26 over again.

It is not the old nature altered, reformed, or re-invigorated, but

a new birth from above. This is the teaching of such passages as

John 3:3-7; 5:21; Eph. 2:1, 10; 2 Cor. 5:17.


By nature man is dead in sin (Eph. 2:1); the new birth imparts to

him new life--the life of God, so that henceforth he is as those

that are alive from the dead; he has passed out of death into life

(John 5:24).


4. IT IS THE IMPARTATION OF A NEW NATURE--GOD'S NATURE.


In regeneration we are made partakers of the divine nature (2

Pet. 1:4). We have put on the new man, which after God is created

in holiness and righteousness (Eph. 4:11; Col. 3:10). Christ now

lives in the believer (Gal. 2:20). God's seed now abides in him

(1 John 3:9). So that henceforth the believer is possessed of two

natures (Gal. 5:17).


5. A NEW AND DIVINE IMPULSE IS GIVEN TO THE BELIEVER.


Thus regeneration is a crisis with a view to a process. A new

governing power comes into the regenerate man's life by which he

is enabled to become holy in experience: "Old things are passed

away; behold all things are become new" (2 Cor. 5:17). See also

Acts 16:14, and Ezek. 36:25-27, 1 John 3:6-9.


II. THE IMPERATIVE NECESSITY OF THE NEW BIRTH.


1. THE NECESSITY IS UNIVERSAL.


The need is as far reaching as sin and the human race: "Except

a man (lit. anybody) be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of

God" (John 3:3, cf. v. 5). No age, sex, position, condition exempts

anyone from this necessity. Not to be born again is to be lost.

There is no substitute for the new birth: "Neither circumcision

availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature" (Gal.

6:15). The absolute necessity is clearly stated by our Lord: whatever

is born of the flesh, must be born again of the Spirit (John 3:3-7).


2. THE SINFUL CONDITION OF MAN DEMANDS IT.


John 3:6--"That which is born of the flesh is flesh"--and it

can never, by any human process, become anything else. "Can the

Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may ye

also do good that are accustomed to do evil" (Jer. 13:23). "They

that are in the flesh cannot please God" (Rom. 8:8); in our "flesh

dwelleth no good thing" (Rom. 7:18). The mind is darkened so that

we cannot apprehend spiritual truth; we need a renewing of the mind

(Rom. 12:2). The heart is deceitful, and does not welcome God; we

need to be pure in heart to see God. There is no thought of God

before the eyes of the natural man; we need a change in nature

that we may be counted among those "who thought upon His name."

No education or culture can bring about such a needed change. God

alone can do it.


3. THE HOLINESS OF GOD DEMANDS IT.


If without holiness no man shall see the Lord (Heb. 12:14); and

if holiness is not to be attained by any natural development or

self-effort, then the regeneration of our nature is absolutely

necessary. This change, which enables us to be holy, takes place

when we are born again.


Man is conscious that he does not have this holiness by nature; he

is conscious, too, that he must have it in order to appear before

God (Ezra 9:15). The Scriptures corroborate this consciousness in

man, and, still further, state the necessity of such a righteousness

with which to appear before God. In the new birth alone is the

beginning of such a life to be found. To live the life of God we

must have the nature of God.


III. THE MEANS OF REGENERATION.


1. REGENERATION IS A DIVINE WORK.


We are "born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of

the will of man, _but of God"_ (John 1:13). It was of His own

will he begat us (Jas. 1:18): Our regeneration is a creative act

on the part of God, not a reforming process on the part of man. It

is not brought about by natural descent, for all we get from that

is "flesh." It is not by natural choice, for the human will is

impotent. Nor is it by self-effort, or any human generative principle.

Nor is it by the blood of any ceremonial sacrifices. It is not by

pedigree or natural generation. It is altogether and absolutely

the work of God. Practically speaking, we have no more to do with

our second birth, than we had to do with our first birth.


The Holy Spirit is the Divine Agent in our regeneration. For this

reason it is called the "renewing of the Holy Ghost" (Tit. 3:5).

We are "born of the Spirit" (John 3:5).


2. AND YET THERE IS A HUMAN SIDE TO THE WORK.


John 1:12 and 13 bring together these two thoughts--the divine and

the human in regeneration: Those who _received_ Him (i. e.,

Christ)....were born _of God._ The two great problems connected

with regeneration are the efficiency of God and the activity of

man.


a) Man Is Regenerated by Means of the Acceptance of the Message of

the Gospel.


God begat us by "the word of truth" (James 1:18). We are "born

again," says Peter (1 Pet.. 1:23), "of incorruptible seed, by the

word of God." We are "begotten through the gospel" (1 Cor. 4:15).

These scriptures teach us that regeneration takes place in the

heart of man when he reads or hears the Word of God, or the Gospel

message, or both, and, because of the Spirit working in the Word as

well as in the heart of man, the man opens his heart and receives

that message as the Word of life to his soul. The truth is illuminated,

as is also the mind, by the Spirit; the man yields to the truth,

and is born again. Of course, even here, we must remember that it

is the Lord who must open our hearts just as He opened the heart

of Lydia (Acts 16:14). But the Word must be believed and received

by man. 1 Pet. 1:25.


b) Man Is Regenerated by the Personal Acceptance of Jesus Christ.


This is the clear teaching of John 1:12, 13 and Gal. 3:26. We become

"children of God by faith in Jesus Christ." When a man, believing

in the claims of Jesus Christ receives Him to be all that He claimed

to be--that man is born again.


Man therefore is not wholly passive at the time of his regeneration.

He is passive only as to the change of his ruling disposition.

With regard to the exercise of this disposition he is active. A

dead man cannot assist in his own resurrection, it is true; but he

may, and can, like Lazarus, obey Christ's command, and "Come forth!"


Psa. 90:16, 17 illustrates both the divine and human part: "Let

_thy_ work appear unto thy servants," and then "the work of

_our_ hands establish thou it." God's work appears first, then

man's. So Phil. 2:12,13.



D. JUSTIFICATION.


I. ITS MEANING.


1. RELATIVELY.

2. SCRIPTURALLY.

3. PARDON--RIGHTEOUSNESS.


II. ITS METHOD.


1. NOT BY LAW.

2. BY GOD'S FREE GRACE.

3. THE BLOOD OF CHRIST.

4. FAITH.


D. JUSTIFICATION.


I. THE MEANING OF JUSTIFICATION.


1. RELATIVELY.



It is a change in a man's relation or standing before God. It has

to do with relations that have been disturbed by sin, and these

relations are personal. It is a change from guilt and condemnation

to acquittal and acceptance. Regeneration has to do with the change

of the believer's nature; Justification, with the change of his

standing before God. Regeneration is subjective; Justification

is objective. The former has to do with man's state; the latter,

with his standing.


2. ACCORDING TO THE LANGUAGE AND USAGE OF THE SCRIPTURES.


According to Deut. 25:1 it means to declare, or to cause to appear

innocent or righteous; Rom. 4:2-8: to reckon righteous; Psa. 32:2:

not to impute iniquity. One thing at least is clear from these

verses, and that is, that to justify does not mean to _make_

one righteous. Neither the Hebrew nor Greek words will bear such

meaning. To justify means to set forth as righteous; to declare

righteous in a legal sense; to put a person in a right relation.

It does not deal, at least not directly, with character or conduct;

it is a question of relationship. Of course both character and

conduct will be conditioned and controlled by this relationship.

No real righteousness on the part of the person justified is to be

asserted, but that person is declared to be righteous and is treated

as such. Strictly speaking then, Justification is the judicial act

of God whereby those who put faith in Christ are declared righteous

in His eyes, and free from guilt and punishment.


3. JUSTIFICATION CONSISTS OF TWO ELEMENTS.


a) The Forgiveness of Sin, and the Removal of Its Guilt and

Punishment.


It is difficult for us to understand God's feeling towards sin.

To us forgiveness seems easy, largely because we are indifferent

towards sin. But to a holy God it is different. Even men sometimes

find it hard to forgive when wronged. Nevertheless God gladly

forgives.


Micah 7:18,19--"Who is a God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity,

and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his heritage? he

retaineth not his anger forever, because he delighteth in mercy .

. . . he will subdue our iniquities; and thou wilt cast all their

sins into the depths of the sea." See also Psa. 130:4. What a

wondrous forgiveness!


Forgiveness may be considered as the cessation of the moral anger

and resentment of God against sin; or as a release from the guilt

of sin which oppresses the conscience; or, again, as a remission

of the punishment of sin, which is eternal death.


In Justification, then, all our sins are forgiven, and the guilt

and punishment thereof removed (Acts 13:38, 39; Rom. 8:1). God sees

the believer as without sin and guilt in Christ (Num. 23:21; Rom.

8:33, 34).


b) The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness, and Restoration to

God's Favor.


The forgiven sinner is not like the discharged prisoner who has

served out his term and is discharged from further punishment, but

with no rights of citizenship. No, justification means much more

than acquittal. The repentant sinner receives back in his pardon,

the full rights of citizenship. The Society of Friends called

themselves Friends, not because they were friends one to another

but because, being justified, they counted themselves friends of

God as was Abraham (2 Chron. 20:7, James 2:23). There is also the

imputation of the righteousness of Jesus Christ to the sinner. His

righteousness is "unto all and upon all them that believe" (Rom.

3:22). See Rom. 5:17-21; 1 Cor. 1:30. For illustration, see Philemon

18.


II. THE METHOD OF JUSTIFICATION.


1. NEGATIVELY: NOT BY WORKS OF THE LAW.


Rom. 3:20--"Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh

be justified in his sight; for by the law is the knowledge of

sin." "Therefore" implies that a judicial trial has taken place

and a judgment pronounced. At the bar of God no man can be counted

righteous in His sight because of his obedience to law. The burden

of the Epistle to the Romans is to set forth this great truth. As

a means of establishing right relations with God the law is totally

insufficient. There is no salvation _by_ character. What men

need is salvation _from_ character.


The reason why the law cannot justify is here stated: "For by the

law is the knowledge of sin." The law can open the sinner's eyes

to his sin, but it cannot remove it. Indeed, it was never intended

to remove it, but to intensify it. The law simply defines sin, and

makes it sinful, yea, exceedingly sinful, but it does not emancipate

from it. Gal. 3:10 gives us a further reason why justification

cannot take place by obedience to the law. The law demands perfect

and continual obedience: "Cursed is every one that continueth not

in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them."

No man can render a perfect and perpetual obedience, therefore

justification by obedience to the law is impossible. The only thing

the law can do is to stop the mouth of every man, and declare him

guilty before God (Rom. 3:19, 20).


Gal. 2:16, and 3:10, Rom. 3:28, are very explicit in their denial

of justification by law. It is a question of Moses or Christ, works

or faith, law or promise, doing or believing, wages or a free gift.


2. POSITIVELY: BY GOD'S FREE GRACE--THE ORIGIN OR SOURCE OF

JUSTIFICATION.


Rom. 3:24--"Being justified freely by his grace through the

redemption that is in Christ Jesus." "Freely" denotes that it is

granted without anything done on our part to merit or deserve it.

From the contents of the epistle up to this point it must be clearly

evident that if men, sinful and sinning, are to be justified at

all, it must be "by his free grace."


3. BY THE BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST--THE GROUND OF JUSTIFICATION.


Rom. 3:24--"Being justified . . . . through the redemption that

is in Christ Jesus." 5:9--"Much more then, being now justified by

his blood." 2 Cor. 5:21 (R. V.)--"Him who knew no sin he made to

be sin on our behalf; that we might become the righteousness of

God in him." The bloodshedding of Christ is here connected with

justification. It is impossible to get rid of this double idea from

this passage. The sacrifices of the Old Testament were more than a

meaningless butchery--"Without shedding of blood is no remission"

of sin (Heb. 9:22). The great sacrifice of the New Testament,

the death of Jesus Christ, was something more than the death of a

martyr--men are "justified by his blood" (Rom. 5:9).


4. BY BELIEVING IN JESUS CHRIST--THE CONDITION OF JUSTIFICATION.


Gal. 2:16--"Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the

law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ," or as the Revised Version

margin has it: "But only through faith in Jesus Christ." Rom.

3:26--"To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness; that he

might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus."

"Him that believeth in Jesus" is contrasted with "as many as are

of the works of the law" (Gal. 3:10). When Paul in Romans 4:5 says:

"Now to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth

the ungodly," he gives the death-blow to Jewish righteousness.

"His faith is counted for righteousness;" that pictures the man

who, despairing of all dependence upon his works, casts himself

unreservedly upon the mercy of God, as set forth in Jesus Christ,

for his justification. Thus it come to pass that "all that believe

are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified

by the law of Moses" (Acts 13:39). The best of men need to be saved

by faith in Jesus Christ, and the worst need only that. As there

is no difference in the need, neither is there in the method of

its application. On this common ground all saved sinners meet, and

will stand forever. The first step, then, in justification is to

despair of works; the second, to believe on him that justifieth

the ungodly.


We are not to slight good works, for they have their place, but

they follow, not precede justification. The workingman is not the

justified man, but the justified man is the workingman. Works are

not meritorious, but they meet with their reward in the life of

the justified. The tree _shows_ its life by its fruits, but

it was alive before the fruit or even the leaves appeared. (See

under Faith, II. 3, p. 148, for further suggestions regarding the

relation between faith and works.)


Summing up we may say that men are justified _judicially_ by

God. (Rom. 8:33); _meritoriously_ by Christ, (Isa. 53:11);

_mediately_ by _faith_, (Rom. 5:1); _evidentially_

by works, (James 2:14, 18-24).



THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION


E. ADOPTION.


I. THE MEANING OF ADOPTION.


   1. ETYMOLOGICALLY.

   2. SCRIPTURALLY.


II. THE TIME OF ADOPTION.


   1. ETERNAL.

   2. WHEN ONE BELIEVES.

   3. COMPLETE AT RESURRECTION.


III. THE BLESSINGS OF ADOPTION.


   1. FILIAL.

   2. EXPERIMENTAL.


IV. SOME EVIDENCES OF SONSHIP.

 

   1. GUIDANCE.

   2. CONFIDENCE.

   3. ACCESS.

   4. LOVE FOR THE BRETHREN.

   5. OBEDIENCE.


E. ADOPTION.



Regeneration begins the new life in the soul; justification deals

with the new attitude of God towards that soul, or perhaps better, of

that soul towards God; adoption admits man into the family of God

with filial joy. Regeneration has to do with our change in nature;

justification, with our change in standing; sanctification, with

our change in character; adoption, with our change in position. In

regeneration the believer becomes a child of God (John 1:12,13);

in adoption, the believer, already a child, receives a place as

an adult son; thus the child becomes a son, the minor becomes an

adult (Gal. 4:1-7).


I. THE MEANING OF ADOPTION.


Adoption means _ the placing of a son_. It is a legal metaphor

as regeneration is a physical one. It is a Roman word, for adoption

was hardly, if at all, known among the Jews. It means the taking

by one man of the son of another to be his son, so that that son

has the same position and all the advantages of a son by birth.

The word is Pauline, not Johannine. The word is never once used

of Christ. It is used of the believer when the question of rights,

privileges, and heirship are involved. It is peculiarly a Pauline

word (Gal. 4:5; Rom. 8:15, 23; 9:4; Eph. 1:5). John uses the word

"children," not "sons," because he is always speaking of sonship

from the standpoint of nature, growth, and likeness (cf. 1 John

3:1, R. V.).


Exodus 2:10 and Heb. 11:24, furnish two splendid illustrations of

the Scriptural sense and use of adoption.


II. THE TIME WHEN ADOPTION TAKES PLACE.


1. IN A CERTAIN SENSE IT IS ETERNAL IN ITS NATURE.


Eph. 1:4, 5--Before the foundation of the world we were predestinated

unto the adoption of children. We need to distinguish between the

foreordaining to adoption, and the actual act of adoption which

took place when we believed in Christ. Just as the incarnation was

foreordained, and yet took place in time; and just as the Lamb was

slain from before the foundation of the word, and yet actually only

on Calvary. Why then mention this eternal aspect of adoption? To

exclude works and to show that our salvation had its origin solely

in the grace of God (Rom. 9:11; 11:5, 6). Just as if we should

adopt a child it would be a wholly gracious act on our part.


2. IT TAKES PLACE THE MOMENT ONE BELIEVES IN JESUS CHRIST.


1 John 3:2--"Beloved, now are we the sons of God." Gal. 3:26--"For

ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus." See also

John 1:12. Sonship is now the present possession of the believer.

Strange as it may be, inconceivable as it may seem, it is nevertheless

true. The world may not think so (v. 1), but God says so, and the

Christian believing it, exclaims, "I'm the child of a King." Formerly

we were slaves; now we are sons.


3. OUR SONSHIP WILL BE COMPLETED AT THE RESURRECTION AND COMING

AGAIN OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST.


Rom. 8:23--"Waiting for the adoption, to-wit, the redemption, of

the body." Here in this world we are _incognito_; we are not

recognized as sons of God. But some day we shall throw off this

disguise (2 Cor. 5:10). It doth not appear, it hath not yet appeared

what we shall be; the revelation of the sons of God is reserved

for a future day. See also I John 3:1-3.


III. THE BLESSINGS OF ADOPTION.


The blessings of adoption are too numerous to mention save in the

briefest way. Some of them are as follows:


Objects of God's peculiar love (John 17:23), and His fatherly care

(Luke 12:27-33).


We have the family name (1 John 3:1; Eph. 3:14, 15), the family

likeness (Rom. 8:29); family love (John 13:35; 1 John 3:14); a

filial spirit (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6); a family service (John 14:23,

24; 15:8).


We receive fatherly chastisement (Heb. 12:5-11); fatherly comfort

(Isa. 66:13; 2 Cor. 1:4), and an inheritance (1 Pet. 1:3-5; Rom.

8:17).


IV. SOME EVIDENCES OF SONSHIP.


Those who are adopted into God's family are: Led by the Spirit

(Rom. 8:4; Gal. 5:18). Have a childlike confidence in God (Gal.

4:5, 6). Have liberty of access (Eph. 3:12). Have love for the

brethren (1 John 2:9-11; 5:1). Are obedient (1 John 5:1-3).



F. SANCTIFICATION.


I. ITS MEANING.


   1. NEGATIVELY--SEPARATION FROM EVIL.

   2. POSITIVELY--DEDICATION UNTO GOD.

   3. USED OF THE DIVINE NATURE.


II. WHEN IT TAKES PLACE.


   1. INSTANT.

   2. PROGRESSIVE.

   3. COMPLETE.


III. THE MEANS.


   1. DIVINE.

   2. HUMAN.

   3. MEANS USED.



F. SANCTIFICATION.


If Regeneration has to do with our nature, Justification with our

standing, and Adoption with our position, then Sanctification has

to do with our character and conduct. In Justification we are declared

righteous in order that, in Sanctification, we may become righteous.

Justification is what God does for us, while Sanctification is what

God does in us. Justification puts us into a right relationship with

God, while Sanctification exhibits the fruit of that relationship--a

life separated from a sinful world and dedicated unto God.


I. THE MEANING OF SANCTIFICATION.


Two thoughts are prominent in this definition: separation from

evil, and dedication unto God and His service.


1. SEPARATION FROM EVIL.


2 Chron. 29:5, 15-18--"Sanctify now yourselves, and sanctify the

house of the Lord God . . . . and carry forth the filthiness out

of the holy places. . . . And the priests went into the inner part

of the house of the Lord, to cleanse it, and brought out all the

uncleanness. . . .Then they went in to Hezekiah the king, and said,

We have cleansed all the house of the Lord." 1 Thess. 4:3--"For

this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should

abstain from fornication." See also Heb. 9:3; Exod. 19:20-22; Lev.

11:44.


It is evident from these scriptures that sanctification has to do

with the turning away from all that is sinful and that is defiling

to both soul and body.


2. SEPARATION OR DEDICATION UNTO GOD.


In this sense whatever is set apart from a profane to a sacred use,

whatever is devoted exclusively to the service of God, is sanctified.

So it follows that a man may "sanctify his house to be holy unto

the Lord," or he may "sanctify unto the Lord some part of a field

of his possession" (Lev. 27:14, 16). So also the first-born of all

the children were sanctified unto the Lord (Num. 8:17). Even the

Son of God Himself, in so far as He was set apart by the Father and

sent into the world to do God's will, was sanctified (John 10:36).

Whenever a thing or person is separated from the common relations

of life in order to be devoted to the sacred, such is said to be

sanctified.


3. IT IS USED OF GOD.


Whenever the sacred writers desire to show that the Lord is

absolutely removed from all that is sinful and unholy, and that He

is absolutely holy in Himself they speak of Him as being sanctified:

"When I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes" (Ezek. 36:23).


II. THE TIME OF SANCTIFICATION.


Sanctification may be viewed as past, present, and future; or

instantaneous, progressive, and complete.


1. INSTANTANEOUS SANCTIFICATION.


1 Cor. 6:11--"And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye

are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus,

and by the Spirit of our God." Heb. 10:10, 14--"By the which will

we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ

once for all. . . . For by one offering he hath perfected forever

them that are sanctified." By the death of Jesus Christ the

sanctification of the believer takes place at once. The very moment

a man believes in Christ he is sanctified, that is, in this first

sense: he is separated from sin and separated unto God. For this

reason all through the New Testament believers are called saints

(1 Cor. 1:2, R. V.; Rom. 1:7, R. V.). If a man is not a saint he

is not a Christian; if he is a Christian he is a saint. In some

quarters people are canonized after they are dead; the New Testament

canonizes believers while they are alive. Note how that in 1 Cor.

6:11 "sanctified" is put before "justified." The believer grows

_in_ sanctification rather than _into_ sanctification out

of something else. By a simple act of faith in Christ the believer

is at once put into a state of sanctification. Every Christian is

a sanctified man. The same act that ushers him into the state of

justification admits him at once into the state of sanctification,

in which he is to grow until he reaches the fulness of the measure

of the stature of Christ.


2. PROGRESSIVE SANCTIFICATION.


Justification differs from Sanctification thus: the former is an

instantaneous act with no progression; while the latter is a crisis

with a view to a process--an act, which is instantaneous and which

at the same time carries with it the idea of growth unto completion.


2 Pet. 3:18--"But grow in (the) grace, and in the knowledge of our

Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 2 Cor. 3:18--We "are transformed

into the same image from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the

Spirit." The tense is interesting here: We are being transformed

from one degree of character, or glory, to another. It is because

sanctification is progressive, a growth, that we are exhorted

to "increase and abound" (1 Thess. 3:12), and to "abound more and

more" (4:1, 10) in the graces of the Christian life. The fact that

there is always danger of contracting defilement by contact with a

sinful world, and that there is, in the life of the true Christian,

an ever increasing sense of duty and an ever-deepening consciousness

of sin, necessitates a continual growth and development in the

graces and virtues of the believer's life. There is such a thing

as "perfecting holiness" (2 Cor. 7:1). God's gift to the church of

pastors and teachers is for the purpose of the perfecting of the

saints in the likeness of Christ _until_, at last, they attain

unto the fulness of the divine standard, even Jesus Christ (Eph.

4:11-15). Holiness is not a mushroom growth; it is not the thing

of an hour; it grows as the coral reef grows: little by little,

degree by degree. See also Phil. 3:10-15.


3. COMPLETE AND FINAL SANCTIFICATION.


1 Thess. 5:23, R. V.--"And the God of peace himself sanctify you

wholly; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved entire,

without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." "Wholly"

means complete in every part, perfect in every respect, whether

it refers to the Church as a whole, or to the individual believer.

Some day the believer is to be complete in all departments of

Christian character--no Christian grace missing. Complete in the

"spirit" which links him with heaven; in the "body" which links him

with earth; in the "soul" as being that on which heaven and earth

play. Maturity in each separate element of Christian character:

body, soul, and spirit.


This blessing of entire and complete sanctification is to take

place when Christ comes: 1 Thess. 3:13--"To the end that he may

establish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even

our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his

saints." It is when we shall see Him that we shall be like Him (1

John 3:2). How explicitly Paul puts the matter in Phil. 3:12-14,

R. V. --"Not that I have already obtained, or am already made

perfect: but I press on, if so be that I may lay hold of that for

which also I was laid hold on by Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count

not myself yet to have laid hold: but one thing I do, forgetting

the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things

which are before, I press on toward the goal unto the prize of the

high calling of God in Christ Jesus."


III. THE MEANS OF SANCTIFICATION.


How are men sanctified? What means are used, and what agencies

employed to make men holy and conform them into the likeness of

Christ? The agencies and means are both divine and human: both God

and man contributing and co-operating towards this desired end.


1. FROM THE DIVINE SIDE: IT IS THE WORK OF THE TRIUNE GOD.


a) God the Father.


1 Thess. 5:23, 24, R. V.--"And the God of peace himself sanctify

you wholly. . . . Faithful is he that calleth you, who will also

do it." God's work is here contrasted with human efforts to achieve

the preceding injunctions. Just as in Hebrews 12:2, and Philippians

1:6, the Beginner of faith is also the Finisher; so is it

here; consequently the end and aim of every exhortation is but to

strengthen faith in God who is able to accomplish these things for

us. Of course there is a sense in which the believer is responsible

for his progress in the Christian life (Phil. 3:12, 13), yet it

is nevertheless true that, after all, it is the divine grace which

works all in him (Phil. 2:12, 13). We cannot purify ourselves,

but we can yield to God and then the purity will come. The "God of

peace," He who reconciles us--is the One who sanctifies us. It is

as if the apostle said: "God, by His mighty power will do for you

what I, by my admonitions, and you by your own efforts, cannot

do." See also John 17:17--"Sanctify them through thy truth." Christ

addresses God as the One who is to sanctify the disciples.


b) Jesus Christ the Son.


Heb. 10:10, R. V.--"By which will we have been sanctified through

the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." The death

of Jesus Christ separates the believer from sin and the world, and

sets him apart as redeemed and dedicated to the service of God.

This same truth, namely, the sanctification of the church as based

on the sacrificial death of Christ, is set forth in Eph. 5:25,

27--"Christ loved the church, and gave himself up for it; that he

might sanctify it." Christ is "made unto us . . . sanctification"

(1 Cor. 1:30). See also Heb. 13:12, R. V.


c) The Holy Spirit Sanctifies.


1 Pet. 1:2--"Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the

Father, through sanctification of the Spirit." 2 Thess. 2:13--".

. . . Because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation

through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth." The

Holy Spirit seals, attests, and confirms the work of grace in the

soul by producing the fruits of righteousness therein. It is the

Spirit of life in Christ Jesus who gives us freedom from the law

of sin and death (Rom. 8:2). He is called the _Holy_ Spirit,

not only because He is absolutely holy Himself, but also because

he produces that quality of soul-character in the believer. The

Spirit is the executive of the God-head for this very purpose. It is

the Spirit's work to war against the lusts of the flesh and enable

us to bring forth fruit unto holiness (Gal. 5:17-22). How wonderfully

this truth is set forth in the contrast between the seventh and

eighth chapters of Romans. Note the unsuccessful struggle of the

former, and the victory of the latter. Note also that there is no

mention of the Holy Spirit in the seventh, while He is mentioned

about sixteen times in the eighth chapter. Herein lies the secret

of failure and victory, sin and holiness.


2. FROM THE HUMAN SIDE.


a) Faith in the Redemptive Work of Jesus Christ.


1 Cor. 1:30, R. V.--"But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who was

made unto us wisdom from God, and righteousness, and sanctification,

and redemption." Christ is indeed all these things to us, but, in

reality, He becomes such only as we appropriate Him for ourselves.

Only as the believer, daily, yea, even momentarily, takes by faith

the holiness of Jesus, His faith, His patience, His love, His

grace, to be his own for the need of that very moment, can Christ,

who by His death was made unto him sanctification in the instantaneous

sense, become unto him sanctification in the progressive

sense--producing in the believer His own life moment by moment.

Herein lies the secret of a holy life--the momentarily appropriation

of Jesus Christ in all the riches of His grace for every need as

it arises. The degree of our sanctification is the proportion of

our appropriation of Christ. See also Acts 26:18.


b) The Study of the Scriptures and Obedience Thereto.


John 17:17--"Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth."

Eph. 5:26--"That he might sanctify and cleanse it (i.e., the Church)

with the washing of water by the word." John 15:3--"Now ye are clean

through the word which I have spoken unto you." Our sanctification

is limited by our limitation in the knowledge of and our lack of

obedience to the Word of God. How does the Word of God sanctify? By

revealing sin; by awakening conscience; by revealing the character

of Christ; by showing the example of Christ; by offering the

influences and powers of the Holy Spirit, and by setting forth

spiritual motives and ideals. There is no power like that of the

Word of God for detaching a man from the world, the flesh and the

devil.


c) Various Other Agencies.


Heb. 12:14, R. V.--"Follow after . . . the sanctification without

which no man shall see the Lord." To "follow after" means to

pursue, to persecute, as Saul of Tarsus pursued and followed the

early Christians. One cannot become a saint in his sleep. Holiness

must be the object of his pursuit. The lazy man will not be the

holy man.


Heb. 12:10, 11: God chastens us "for our profit, that we might be

partakers of his holiness." Chastisement ofttimes is intended to

"produce the peaceable fruit of righteousness."


Rom. 6:19-23; 2 Cor. 6:17, 7:1. Sanctification is brought about

in the life of the believer by his separating himself deliberately

from all that is unclean and unholy, and by presenting, continually

and constantly, the members of his body as holy instruments unto God

for the accomplishment of His holy purposes. Thus by these single

acts of surrender unto holiness, sanctification soon becomes the

habit of the life.



G. PRAYER.


I. ITS IMPORTANCE.


II. ITS NATURE.


   1. AS SEEN IN ITS HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT.

   2. SCRIPTURAL TERMS.


III. ITS POSSIBILITY.


   1. THE REVELATION OF GOD.

   2. THE WORK OF THE SON.

   3. THE ASSISTANCE OF THE SPIRIT.

   4. THE PROMISES.

   5. CHRISTIAN TESTIMONY.


IV. ITS OBJECTS.


   1. GOD THE FATHER.

   2. CHRIST THE SON.

   3. THE HOLY SPIRIT.


V. ITS METHOD.


   1. POSTURE.

   2. TIME AND PLACE.


VI. HINDRANCES AND HELPS.


   1. HINDRANCES.

   2. HELPS--ESSENTIALS.


G. PRAYER.


I. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER.



Even a cursory perusal of the Scriptures will reveal the large and

important place which the doctrine of Prayer finds therein. The

Christian life cannot be sustained without it; it is the Christian's

vital breath. Its importance is seen when we recall:


That the neglect of prayer is grievous to the Lord (Isa. 43:21, 22;

64:6, 7, R. V.). That many evils in life are to be attributed

to the lack of prayer (Zeph. 1:4-6; Dan. 9:13, 14, cf. Hosea 7:13,

14; 8:13, 14).


That it is a sin to neglect prayer (1 Sam. 12:23).


That to continue in prayer is a positive command (Col. 4:2, R. V.;

1 Thess. 5:17; we are commanded to take leisure or a vacation for

prayer: 1 Cor. 7:5).


That it is God's appointed method of obtaining what He has to bestow

(Dan. 9:3; Matt. 7:7-11; 9:24-29; Luke 11:13).


That the lack of the necessary blessings in life comes from failure

to pray (James 4:2).


That the apostles regarded prayer as the most important employment

that could engage their time or attention (Acts 6:4; Rom. 1:9;

Col. 1:9).


II. THE NATURE OF PRAYER.


It is interesting to trace the development of prayer in the

Scriptures.


In the life of the patriarch Abraham prayer seems to have taken the

form of a dialogue--God and man drawing near and talking to each

other (Gen. 18; 19); developing into intercession (Gen. 17:18;

18:23, 32), and then into personal prayer (Gen. 15:2; 24:12); Jacob,

(Gen. 28:20; 32:9-12, 24; Hosea 12:4). The patriarchal blessings

are called prayers (Gen 49:1; Deut. 33:11).


During the period of the Law. Not very much prominence is given

to formal prayer during this period. Deut. 26:1-15 seems to be the

only one definitely recorded. Prayer had not yet found a stated

place in the ritual of the law. It seems to have been more of a

personal than a formal matter, and so while the Law may not afford

much material, yet the life of the lawgiver, Moses, abounds with

prayer (Exod. 5:22; 32:11; Num. 11:11-15).


Under Joshua (7:6-9; 10:14), and the judges (c. 6) we are told that

the children of Israel "cried unto the Lord."


Under Samuel prayer seems to have assumed the nature of intercession

(1 Sam. 7:5, 12; 8:16-18); personal (1 Sam. 15:11, 35; 16:1).

In Jeremiah (15:1) Moses and Samuel are represented as offering

intercessory prayer for Israel.


David seems to regard himself as a prophet and priest, and prays

without an intercessor (2 Sam. 7:18-29).


The prophets seem to have been intercessors, e.g., Elijah (1 Kings

18). Yet personal prayers are found among the prophets (Jer. 20--both

personal and intercessory; 33:3; 42:4; Amos 7).


In the Psalms prayer takes the form of a pouring out of the heart

(42:4; 62:8; 100:2, title). The psalmist does not seem to go before

God with fixed and orderly petitions so much as simply to pour

out his feelings and desires, whether sweet or bitter, troubled

or peaceful. Consequently the prayers of the psalmist consist of

varying moods: complaint, supplication, confession, despondency,

praise.


True prayer consists of such elements as adoration, praise, petition,

pleading, thanksgiving, intercession, communion, waiting. The closet

into which the believer enters to pray is not only an oratory --a

place of prayer, it is an observatory--a place of vision. Prayer

is not "A venture and a voice of mine; but a vision and a voice

divine." Isa. 63:7; 64:12, illustrates all essential forms of

address in prayer.


III. THE POSSIBILITY OF PRAYER.


This possibility consists in five things:


1. THE REVELATION OF GOD WHICH CHRIST HAS BROUGHT TO US.


John 1:18--"No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten

Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him."

Matt. 11:27--". . . . Neither knoweth any man the Father, save the

Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him."


Christ reveals God as a _personal_ God, as a Being who sees,

feels, knows, understands, and acts. Belief in the personality of

God is absolutely necessary to true prayer (Heb. 11:6).


Christ reveals God as a _sovereign_ God (Matt. 19:26)--"With

God all things are possible." God is sovereign over all laws; He

can make them subservient to His will, and use them in answering

the prayers of His children. He is not bound by any so-called

unchangeable laws.


Christ revealed God as a _Father_ (Luke 11:13). In every

instance in the life of Christ whenever He addresses God in prayer

it is always as Father. The fact of the fatherhood of God makes

prayer possible. It would be unnatural for a father not to commune

with his child.


2. THE SACRIFICIAL WORK OF JESUS CHRIST.


Heb. 10:19-22, R. V.--"Having therefore, brethren, boldness to

enter into the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by the way which

he dedicated for us, a new and living way, through the veil, that

is to say, his flesh; and having a great priest over the house of

God; let us draw near with a true heart in fulness of faith." It

is because of the death of Christ, which removed the barrier that

stood between God and us so that He could not consistently hear and

answer our prayers, that He can now hear and answer the petitions

of His children.


3. THE INSPIRATION OF THE HOLY GHOST.


Rom. 8:26--"Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for

we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit

himself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be

uttered." See also Jude 20. The thought is this: Even though we

are assured that there is a personal God to hear us, and although

we have the confidence that the barrier of sin which stood between

us and God has been removed, so that we now desire to pray, we often

are hindered because we either do not know what to say or what to

ask for. We may ask too ardently for wrong things, or too languidly

for the things we most need. And so we are afraid to pray. The

assurance that this verse gives us is that the Holy Spirit will pray

within us, and will indict the petition, helping us in our prayer

life.


4. THE MANY PROMISES OF THE BIBLE.


We are told that there are over 33,000 of them. Each promise is "yea

and amen in Jesus Christ"; He is the guarantee and the guarantor

of them all. They are not given to mock but to encourage us: "Hath

he said and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken and shall he not

make it good?" See John 14:13; 15:7; 1 John 5:14, 15; Luke 11:9,

etc.


5. THE UNIVERSAL CHRISTIAN TESTIMONY.


Christians, by the millions, the world over, can and do testify to

the fact that God both hears and answers prayer. The credibility,

character, and intelligence of the vast number of witnesses make

their testimony indisputable and incontrovertible.


IV. THE OBJECTS OF PRAYER--TO WHOM TO PRAY.


1. TO GOD.


Neh 4:9; Acts 12:5--"Prayer was made without ceasing of the church

unto God for him": God is holy--hence there must be no impurity

in the life of the one praying; righteous, hence no crookedness;

truthful, hence no lying or hypocrisy; powerful, hence we may have

confidence; transcendent, hence reverence in our approach.


2. TO CHRIST.


Acts 7:59--"Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." 2 Cor. 12:8, 9; 2 Tim.

2:22.


3. THE HOLY SPIRIT.


Rom. 8:15, 16 sets forth the relation of the Holy Spirit and prayer,

as do also Zech. 12:10; Eph. 6:18; Jude 20. The Holy Spirit is God

(Acts 5:3, 4; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14), hence is to be worshipped

(Matt. 4:10; Rev. 22:9).


The normal mode of prayer is prayer in the Spirit, on the ground

of the merits of the Son, to the Father: In the Spirit, through

the Son, to the Father.


V. THE METHOD OR MANNER OF PRAYER.


1. WITH REGARD TO THE POSTURE OF THE BODY.


The soul may be in prayer no matter what is the attitude of the

body. The Scriptures sanction no special bodily posture. Christ

stood and prayed (John 17:1), knelt (Luke 22:41), He also fell on

his face on the ground (Matt. 26:39); Solomon knelt (1 Kings 8:54);

Elijah prayed with his elbows on his knees and his face buried in

his hands; David prayed lying on his bed (Psa. 63:6); Peter prayed

on the water (Matt. 14:30); the dying thief, on the cross (Luke

23:42).


2. TIME AND PLACE.


Time: _Stated times_ (Dan. 6:10; Psa. 55:16, 17; Acts 3:1;

2:46; 10:9, 30). _Special occasions:_ Choosing the twelve (Luke

6:12, 13). Before the cross (Luke 22:39-46). After great successes

(John 6:15, cf. Mark 6:46-48). _Early in the morning_ (Mark

1:35). _All night_ (Luke 6:12). _Times of special trouble_

(Psa. 81:7, cf. Exod. 2:23; 3:7; 14:10, 24). _At meals_ (Matt.

14:19; Acts 27:35; 1 Tim. 4:4, 5).


Place of Prayer: Inner chamber (Matt. 6:6); amid nature (Matt.

14:23; Mark 1:35). In the church (John 17:1; Psa. 95:6). Before

the unsaved (Acts 16:25; 27:35). In all places (1 Tim. 2:8, R.

V.).


VI. HINDRANCES AND HELPS TO PRAYER.


1. HINDRANCES.


Indulged known sin (Psa. 66:18; Isa. 59:1, 2). Wilful disobedience

to known commandments (Prov. 28:9). Selfishness (James 4:3).

Unforgiving spirit (Matt. 5:22, 23; 6:12). Lack of faith (Heb.

11:6; James 1:6). Idols in the heart (Ezek. 8:5-18; 14:1-3).


2. HELPS--ESSENTIALS TO PREVAILING PRAYER.


Sincerity (Psa. 145:18; Matt. 6:5). Simplicity (Matt. 6:7, cf.

26:44). Earnestness (James 5:17; Acts 12:5; Luke 22:44). Persistence

(Luke 18:1-8; Col. 4:2; Rom. 12:12, R. V.). Faith (Matt. 21:22;

James 1:6). Unison with others (Matt. 18:19, 20). Definiteness

(Psa. 27:4; Matt. 18:19). Effort (Exod. 14:15). In the name of

Jesus (John 16:23; 14:13, 14). With fasting (Acts 13:2, 3; 14:23).






 

THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH

 

I. DEFINITION; DISTINCTIONS.


   1. OLD TESTAMENT.

   2. NEW TESTAMENT.

   3. THE CHURCH; CHRISTENDOM; KINGDOM.


II. THE FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH.


   1. IN PROPHECY AND PROMISE.

   2. HISTORICALLY FOUNDED.


III. MEMBERSHIP IN THE CHURCH.


Conditions of Entrance; Characteristics.


   1. REPENTANCE AND BAPTISM.

   2. FAITH IN THE DEITY OF JESUS CHRIST.

   3. REGENERATION.

   4. PUBLIC CONFESSION OF CHRIST--BAPTISM.

   5. ADHERENCE TO THE APOSTLES' DOCTRINE.

   6. CHARACTERISTICS.


IV. FIGURES UNDER WHICH THE CHURCH

IS PRESENTED.


   1. THE BODY OF CHRIST.

   2. THE TEMPLE OF GOD.

   3. THE BRIDE OF CHRIST.


V. THE ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH.


   1. BAPTISM.

   2. THE LORD'S SUPPER.


VI. THE VOCATION OF THE CHURCH.


   1. TO WORSHIP GOD.

   2. TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD.

   3. PERFECT EACH MEMBER.

   4. TO WITNESS.

   5. FUTURE GLORY.






THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH.


There is great danger of losing sight of the Church in the endeavor

to emphasize the idea of the Kingdom of Heaven or Christendom. We

are prone to think it a small thing to speak of the Church; the

Kingdom and Christendom seem so large in comparison. We are tempted

to distinguish and contrast Churchism, as it is sometimes called,

and Christianity, to the disparagement of the former. It is well

to remember that Jesus Christ positively identifies Himself with

the Church (Acts 9) and not with Christendom; He gave up His life

that He might found the Church (Eph. 5:25). The Apostle Paul sacrificed

himself in his endeavors to build up the Church, not Christendom.

He speaks of his greatest sin as consisting in persecuting the

Church of God (1 Cor. 15:9). The supreme business of God in this

age is the gathering of the Church. Some day it will be complete

(Eph. 4:12), and then the age will have served its purpose.


I. DEFINITIONS; DISTINCTIONS.


1. OLD TESTAMENT USE OF THE WORD.


Lev. 4:13--"And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through

ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly . .

. ." The Hebrew word for _assembly_ means to _call_ or

_assemble,_ and is used not only for the act of calling itself,

but also for the assembly of the called ones. In this sense Israel

is called a "church," an assembly, because called out from among

the other nations to be a holy people (Acts 7:38, "the church in

the wilderness"). There is always a religious aspect associated

with this particular call.


2. THE NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE WORD.


It is from the New Testament primarily, if not really exclusively,

that the real meaning and idea of the Church is derived. The Christian

Church is a New Testament institution, beginning with Pentecost, *

and ending, probably, with the rapture. Two words are of special

importance in this connection:


* [SLBC NOTE: Stating that the church had its "beginning with

Pentecost" is a totally erroneous statement. What happened at

Pentecost is clearly defined in Acts 1:8 where it is stated that

they "shall receive power..." which is what subsequently came

about. Not existence, but power. You cannot empower something

that does not already exist. Therefore, it is only logical that the

church must have already been in existence prior to Pentecost in

order for it to have been empowered at Pentecost as Christ had

promised in Acts 1:8. They had received the Holy Ghost the day of

the resurrection, John 20:22, and then they received empowerment

by the Holy Ghost on Pentecost to be "witnesses unto me (Jesus),"

when they yielded to Him, the Holy Ghost, as a church when "they

were all with one accord." Acts 2:1]


a) Ecclesia, from Two Greek Words Meaning "To Call Out From."


This word is used in all about 111 times in the New Testament. It

is used in a secular sense in Acts 19:39--"It shall be determined

in a lawful assembly"; of Israel in the wilderness (Acts 7:38),

and of the assembly of believers in Christ (Matt. 16:18; 18:17; 1

Cor. 1:2; Eph. 5:25-27). In keeping with this idea the saints are

said to be the "called-out" ones (Rom. 8:30; 1 Cor. 1:2; cf. 2 Cor.

6:17).


b) "Kuriakon"--That Which Belongs to the Lord.


So we have "the supper of the Lord" (1 Cor. 11:20); the "day of

the Lord" (Rev. 1:10). See also Luke 22:25 and Rom. 14:8, 9, as

illustrating that over which the Lord has dominion and authority.


To sum up then: The Church is composed of the body of believers who

have been called out from the world, and who are under the dominion

and authority of Jesus Christ.


c) The Growth of the Church Idea in the New Testament.


At first there was but one Church at Jerusalem. The meetings may

have been held in different houses, yet there was but one Church

with one roster: so we read of the total membership consisting

at one time of 120 (Acts 1:15), again of 3,000 (2:41), and still

again of 5,000 (4:4), to which there were daily additions (2:47).

The apostles were at the head of the Church (2:41-47). See Acts,

cc. 1 and 2, for a fuller account of the first Church.


The second stage in the growth of the Church was its spread throughout

Judea and Samaria, as recorded in Acts 8.


Antioch, in Syria, then became the head of the Gentile Church (Acts

13:1), as Jerusalem was the head of the Jewish Church (Acts 15);

Paul representing the Church at Antioch, and Peter and James at

Jerusalem. The assembly at Antioch was called "the church" just as

truly as was the assembly at Jerusalem (11:22; 13:1).


Because of the missionary activities of the apostles, especially

Paul, churches sprang up in different cities, especially in Asia

Minor, e.g., Corinth, Galatia, Ephesus, and Philippi.


In view of all this the term "church" came to be used of the Church

_universal,_ that is, the complete body of Christ as existing

in every place (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal. 1:2, 13; Matt. 16:18); of

_local_ churches in any one place (Col. 4:16; Phil. 4:15; 1

Cor. 1:2, etc.); of _single meetings,_ even where two or three

met together (Matt. 18:19; Col. 4:15; Phil. 1:2; Rom. 16:5).


It is evident, then, from what has here been said, that by the term

"church" is included all that is meant from the Church Universal

to the meeting of the church in the house. Wherever God's people

meet in the name of Christ to worship, there you have the Church.


3. DISTINCTIONS:


a) The Church and the Kingdom. *


The Church (which is the mystery) and the Kingdom in mystery are

now contemporary. The Kingdom will be fully manifested at the

coming of Christ. The Church is within the Kingdom; probably the

regenerate are "the children of the kingdom." The Kingdom is comprised

of both good and bad (Matt. 13); the Church, of real saints only.

The Jews rejected the Kingdom under Christ and the apostles. That

Kingdom, now rejected, will be set up again when the Messiah comes.

This conception will help us to understand the parables of Matthew

13, as well as the Sermon on the Mount. The tares are sown not in

the Church, but in the field, which is the world. The Church may

be looked upon as part of the Kingdom of God, just as Illinois is

part of the United States. The Kingdom is present, in a sense,

just as the King is present in the hearts of his own people. There

is a difference between the Church and Christendom, just as there

is a difference between possessing and professing Christians.

Baptized Christendom is one thing, and the Church of Christ is

another.


* [SLBC NOTE: The author makes no distinction between the Kingdom

of God and the Kingdom of Heaven leading us to believe that they are

one and the same- which he calls "The Kingdom." That they are the

same cannot be true because this would be contrary to the Scriptures

concerning each of them. There are similarities, true, but there are also

striking differences. See the workbook for a more indepth treatment of

the two Kingdoms.]



b) The Church Visible and Invisible: Actual and Ideal.


The Church _Visible_ is composed of all those whose names are

enrolled upon its roster; _Invisible,_ of those whose names

are written in the Lamb's book of life; _Actual,_ people

imperfect, yet aiming after perfection, alive here on the earth;

_Ideal,_ departed saints who are now triumphant in heaven (Heb.

12:23). There is a Church in heaven just as there is one upon the

earth; indeed, it is but a part of the one Church; called the Church

_militant_ while upon the earth, and the Church _triumphant_

in heaven.


c) The Church Local and Universal.


By the first is meant the Church in any particular place, such

as "the church at Corinth"; by the latter, the Church as found in

every place (1 Cor. 1:2).


II. THE FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH.


1. FORETOLD BY CHRIST.


Matt. 16:16-18--". . . . On this rock I will build my church." Here

is the Church in prophecy and promise; the first mention of the

Church in the New Testament. Note the distinction here recognized

between the "Kingdom" and the "Church."


The Church is to be founded on Peter's confession of Jesus Christ

as the Son of the living God. No supremacy is here given to Peter,

as a comparison of these verses with John 20:19-23, and Matt.

18:18--in which the same privilege of the binding and loosing is

given to the whole Church and to all the apostles--will show.


In Matthew 18:15-20 our Lord recognizes the fact of the Church, and

also that it has the divine seal and sanction in the exercising of

the power of the keys.


2. HISTORICALLY FOUNDED BY THE APOSTLES.


Acts 1-2:47. The promise and prophecy of Matt. 16:16-18 is here

fulfilled. Here is the account of the first Christian Church in

its glorious beginning, and as it actually existed in Jerusalem.

When a man became regenerate by believing in Jesus Christ he was

thereby constituted a member of the Church. There was no question

as to whether he ought to join himself to the Church or not; that

was a fact taken for granted. So we read that the Lord was adding

to the Church daily such as were being saved. The Church was already

a concrete institution to which every believer in Christ united

himself.


"The Apostles' doctrine" formed the standard of faith--a fulfillment

of Christ's prophecy and promise in Matthew 16:16-18: "On this rock

I will build my church," etc.


The Church had _stated places of meeting:_ the upper room (Acts

1:13), the temple (5:12), the homes of members (2:46, 12:12), and

the synagogue; _stated times of_ meeting: daily (2:46), each

Lord's Day (20:7), the _regular hours_ of prayer (3:1; 10:9);

_a regular church roll:_ 120 (1:15), 3,000 (2:41), 5,000 (4:4);

_daily additions_ (2:47).


That there were definitely, regularly organized churches is clear

from the fact that the Apostle Paul addressed many of his epistles

to churches in different localities. The letters to the Corinthians

(e.g., 1 Ep. 12-14) show that the churches had already recognized

certain forms of service and liturgy; those to Timothy and Titus

presume a regularly organized congregation of believers. That there

is a Church in the world is clear from 1 Cor. 5:9-13. The Christian

Church is as much an entity as the Gentile, or the Jew (1 Cor.

10:32). The existence of church officers proves the existence of

the Church in an organized form: bishops and deacons (Phil. 1:1),

elders (Acts 20:17), the presbytery (1 Tim. 4:14). Church letters

were granted to members (Acts 18:27).


III. MEMBERSHIP IN THE CHURCH--ITS CONDITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS.


1. REPENTANCE AND BAPTISM REQUIRED OF ALL ITS MEMBERS.


Acts 2:38-41--"Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized

every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of

sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Then they

that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there

were added unto them about three thousand souls."


2. FAITH IN THE LORD JESUS CHRIST AS THE DIVINE REDEEMER.


Matt. 16:16-18; Acts 2:38, 39. Peter's entire sermon in Acts 2

illustrates this fact.


3. SAVED-REGENERATED.


Acts 2:47--". . . . And the Lord added to the church such as should

be saved." Cf. John 3:3, 5. It was essential that the members of

the early Church should be "added unto the Lord" before they were

added to the Church (5:14; 11:24).


4. BAPTISM IN THE NAME OF THE TRIUNE GOD AS AN OPEN CONFESSION OF

CHRIST.


Matt. 28:19--"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing

them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy

Ghost." Acts 2:38-41; 10:47, 48; 22:16: cf. Rom. 10:9, 10.


5. ADHERENCE TO THE APOSTOLIC DOCTRINE.


Acts 2:42--"And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine

and fellowship." Cf. "On this rock I will build my church" (Matt.

16:16-18); also Eph. 2:20.


6. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH.


The members were known as believers (Acts 4:32); brethren (11:29;

12:17; Rom. 1:13--the absolute equality of all believers, cf. Matt.

23:8-10); Christians (Acts 11:26; 26:28); saints (9:13; 1 Cor. 1:2;

Rev. 13:7); elect (Mark 13:27; Rom. 8:33; Eph. 1:4).


IV. FIGURES UNDER WHICH THE CHURCH IS SET FORTH IN THE SCRIPTURES.


1. THE BODY, OF WHICH CHRIST IS THE HEAD.


Two ideas are contained in this symbol:


a) The Relation of the Church to Christ, Who Is Its Head.


Eph. 1:22, 23; Col. 1:18; 2:19. The Church is an organism, not

an organization. There is a vital relation between Christ and the

Church, both partaking of the same life, just as there is between

the physical head and the body. We cannot join the Church as we

would a lodge or any mere human organization. We must be partakers

by faith of Christ's life before we can become members of Christ's

Church, in the true sense. As the Head of the Church Christ is

its Guardian and Director (Eph. 5:23, 24); the Source of its life,

filling it with His fulness (Eph. 1:23); the Centre of its Unity

and the Cause of its growth (Eph. 4:15; Col. 2:19).


b) The Relation of the Members One to Another.


1 Cor. 12:12-27; Rom. 12:4, 5; Eph. 4:1-4, 15,16.


2. A TEMPLE, A BUILDING, A HABITATION, A DWELLING-PLACE FOR GOD'S

SPIRIT.


Eph. 2:20, 21; 1 Cor. 3:9-17; 1 Tim. 3:15; 1 Pet. 2:4-8; Rev. 21:3;

1 Cor. 6:19. Of this building Christ is the cornerstone, and the

prophets and apostles the foundation. In 1 Cor. 3 Christ is the chief

cornerstone and the apostles the builders; the whole building is

held in place by Christ.


3. THE BRIDE OF CHRIST.


2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27; Rev. 19:7; 22:17. Christ is the

Bridegroom (John 3:29). This is a great mystery (Eph. 5:32). The

Bride becomes the wife of the Lamb (Rev. 21:2).


V. THE ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH.


1. BAPTISM.


Matt. 28:19, 20; Mark 16:16; Acts 2:38, 41; 8:36-40; 10:47, 48.


2. THE LORD'S SUPPER.


Acts 2:42, 46; 20:7--"And upon the first day of the week, when the

disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them,

ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until

midnight." 1 Cor. 11:20-34.


VI. THE VOCATION OF THE CHURCH.


1. TO WORSHIP GOD AND TO GLORIFY HIM ON THE EARTH:


Eph. 1:4-6--"According as he hath chosen us in him before the

foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame

before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of

children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure

of his will. To the praise of the glory of his grace wherein he

hath made us accepted in the beloved."


2. TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD WITH THE GOSPEL:


Matt. 28:19, 20--"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing

them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy

Ghost." Acts 2; 5:42; 6:5-8; Eph. 3:8; Acts 15:7.


3. TO DEVELOP EACH INDIVIDUAL CHRISTIAN UNTIL HE ATTAINS UNTO THE

FULNESS OF THE STATURE OF CHRIST:


Eph. 4:11-15. Hence the gift of pastors, teachers, etc. Herein

lies the value of church attendance--it promotes growth; failure

to attend leads to apostasy (Heb. 10:25-28), cf. 1 Thess. 5:11; 1

Cor. 12.


4. A CONSTANT WITNESS FOR CHRIST AND HIS WORD:


Acts 1:8--"But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is

come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem,

and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of

the earth." 8:1, 4.


5. THE FUTURE GLORY OF THE CHURCH:


Eph. 3:10, 21; Eev. 7:9-17.







THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES.


I. NAMES AND TITLES.


   1. THE BIBLE.

   2. THE TESTAMENTS.

   3. THE SCRIPTURES.

   4. THE WORD OF GOD.


II. INSPIRATION.


   1. DEFINITION.

   2. DISTINCTIONS.

      a) Revelation.

      b) Illumination.

      c) Reporting.

   3. VIEWS:

      a) Natural Inspiration.

      b) Christian Illumination.

      c) Dynamic Theory.

      d) Concept Theory.

      e) Verbal Inspiration.

      f) Partial Inspiration.

      g) Plenary Inspiration.

   4. THE CLAIMS OF THE SCRIPTURES THEMSELVES:

      a) The Old Testament.

      b) The New Testament.

   5. THE CHARACTER (OR DEGREES) OF INSPIRATION.

      a) Actual Words of God Himself.

      b) Actual Words Communicated by God to Men.

      e) Individual Freedom in Choice of Words--To What Extent?






THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES.


I. THE BIBLE--ITS NAMES AND TITLES.


1. "THE BIBLE."


Our English word _Bible_ comes from the Greek words _biblos_

(Matt. 1:1) and _biblion_ (diminutive form) (Luke 4:17), which

mean _"book."_ Ancient books were written upon the biblus or

papyrus reed, and from this custom came the Greek name _biblos,_

which finally came to be applied to the sacred books. See Mark

12:26; Luke 3:4; 20:42; Acts 1:20; 7:42.


The Bible is not merely _a_ book, however. It is THE BOOK--the

Book that from the importance of its subjects, the wideness of its

range, the majesty of its Author, stands as high above all other

books as the heaven is high above the earth.


2. "THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS."


See Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6, 14; Heb. 9:15; 12:24.


The word _Testament_ means _Covenant,_ and is the term

by which God was pleased to designate the relation that existed

between Himself and His people. The term _Covenant_ was first

of all applied to the relation itself, and afterward to the books

which contained the record of that relation.


By the end of the second century we find the "Old Covenant" and the

"New Covenant" as the established names of the Jewish and Christian

Scriptures; and Origen, in the beginning of the third century, mentioned

"the divine Scriptures, the so-called Old and New Covenants."


The Old Testament deals with the record of the calling and history

of the Jewish nation, and as such it is the Old Covenant. The New

Testament deals with the history and application of the redemption

wrought by the Lord Jesus Christ, and as such it is the New Covenant.


3. "THE SCRIPTURE," AND "THE SCRIPTURES."


The Bible is also called "The Scripture" (Mark 12:10; 15:28; Luke

4:21; John 2:22; 7:38; 10:35; Rom. 4:3; Gal. 4:30; 2 Pet. 1:20), and

"The Scriptures" (Matt. 22:29; Mark 12:24; Luke 24:27; John 5:39;

Acts 17:11; Rom. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:15; 2 Pet. 3:16). These terms mean

that the Scriptures are "Holy Writings." By the early Christians

the most common designation for the whole Bible was "The Scriptures."


4. "THE WORD OF GOD."


Of all the names given to the Bible, "The Word of God" (Mark 7:13;

Rom. 10:17; 2 Cor. 2:17; Heb. 4:12; 1 Thess. 2:13) is doubtless

the most significant, impressive, and complete. It is sufficient

to justify the faith of the weakest Christian. It gathers up all

that the most earnest search can unfold. It teaches us to regard the

Bible as the utterance of divine wisdom and love--as God speaking

to man.


II. THE INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE.


1. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM "INSPIRATION."


This question is best answered by Scripture itself. It defines its

own terms. Let us turn, then, "to the Law and to the Testimony."


In 2 Tim. 3:16--"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God."


The word "inspired" means literally "God-breathed." It is composed

of two Greek words--_theos=God;_ and _pnein=to breathe._

The term "given by inspiration" signifies, then, that the writings

of the Old Testament, of which Paul is here speaking, are the result

of a certain influence exerted by God upon their authors.


The meaning of the word "breathed," as here used, is brought

out very forcibly by the comparison of two other words translated

in the same way. The one is the Greek word _psuchein=to breathe

gently,_ while in 2 Tim. 3:16 the term denotes a forcible

respiration. The other is the Hebrew word _ah-ayrh=to breathe

unconsciously,_ while 2 Tim. 3:16 denotes a conscious breathing.


Inspiration, then, as defined by Paul in this passage, is the

_strong, conscious inbreathing of God into men, qualifying them

to give utterance to truth. It is God speaking through men, and the

Old Testament is therefore just as much the Word of God as though

God spake every single word of it with His own lips._ The

Scriptures are the result of divine inbreathing, just as human

speech is uttered by the breathing through a man's mouth.


2 Pet. 1:21--"For not by the will of man was prophecy brought at

any time, but being borne by the Holy Spirit, the holy men of God

spoke." (This is a literal rendering, and brings out the sense more

clearly.)


The participle "moved" may be translated "when moved," so this

passage teaches that holy men of God wrote the Scripture _when_

moved to do so by the Holy Spirit.


Further, the participle is passive, and denotes "to be moved upon."

This distinctly teaches that the Scripture was not written by mere

men, or at their suggestion, but by men _moved upon_, prompted,

yea indeed, driven by the promptings of the Holy Spirit.


This declaration of Peter may be said to intimate that the Holy Ghost

was especially and miraculously present with and in the writers of

the Scriptures, revealing to them truths which they did not know

before, and guiding them alike in their record of these truths,

and of the transactions of which they were eye and ear witnesses,

so that they were enabled to present them with substantial accuracy

to the minds of others.


The statements of the Scriptures regarding Inspiration may be summed

up as follows: Holy men of God, qualified by the infusion of the

breath of God, wrote in obedience to the divine command, and were

kept from all error, whether they revealed truths previously unknown

or recorded truths already familiar. In this sense, "all Scripture

is given by inspiration of God," the Bible is indeed and in truth

the very Word of God, and the books of the Bible are of divine

origin and authority.


2. THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN INSPIRATION, REVELATION, ILLUMINATION,

AND VERBATIM REPORTING.


a) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Revelation.


It is of the greatest importance, in considering the theme of

Inspiration, to distinguish it clearly from Revelation.


The most cursory perusal of the Scriptures reveals the fact that

they consist of two different kinds of records: first, records of

truth directly revealed and imparted to the mind of the writer by

God, and which he could have learned in no other manner (such, for

example, as the story of Creation); and second, records of events

that occurred within the writer's own observation, and of sayings

that fell upon his own ears (such as Moses' account of the Exodus,

Paul's account of his interview with Peter at Antioch). In the one

case, the writer records things that had not been revealed to man

before; in the other case, he records facts which were as well

known to others as to himself.


Now, Revelation is that act of God by which He directly communicates

truth not known before to the human mind. Revelation discovers new

truth, while Inspiration superintends the communicating of that

truth.


All that is in the Bible has not been "directly revealed" to man.

It contains history, and the language of men, even of wicked men.

But there is absolutely no part of the Bible record that is not

inspired. The history recorded in the Bible is true. The sacred

writers were so directed and influenced by the Spirit that they

were preserved, in writing, from every error of fact and doctrine.

The history remains history. Things not sanctioned by God, recorded

in the Bible, are to be shunned (2 Tim. 3:16). Nevertheless, all

these things were written under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

This is Inspiration.


This distinction should be definitely and clearly understood, for

many of the most plausible arguments against the full inspiration

of the Scriptures have arisen from the fact that this has been

either unrecognized or ignored.


Though all Scripture is inspired, it does not stamp with divine

authority every sentiment which it reports as uttered by the men of

whom it speaks, nor does it mark with divine approval every action

which it relates as performed by those with whose biographies

it deals. In the book of Job, for example, Inspiration gives with

equal accuracy the language of Jehovah, the words of Satan, and the

speeches of Job and his three friends; but it does not therefore

place them all on the same level of authority. Each speaker is

responsible for his own utterances. Neither Satan, Job, nor his

three friends spoke by inspiration of God. They gave utterance to

their own opinions; and all that Inspiration vouches for is that

no one of them is misrepresented, but that each one spoke the

sentiments that are attributed to him in Scripture. So, again,

the fact that David's cruelty to the Ammonites is recorded in the

book of Kings does not imply that God approved it any more than

He approved the king's double crime of murder and adultery, which

"displeased Him." The inspiration of the Book vouches only for the

accuracy of the record.


b) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Illumination.


Spiritual Illumination refers to the influence of the Holy Ghost,

common to all Christians. No statement of a truth about God or

spiritual things can be understood by a man unless the Holy Spirit

takes it and reveals it to him. It is only the spiritual man who

can understand spiritual things. "The natural man receiveth not

the things of the Spirit" (1 Cor. 2:14). No learning of the schools

can lead him to know God. Flesh and blood cannot reveal God to men

(Matt. 16:17).


There is a vast difference between "a divine revelation of the

mind of God" and "a divine action on the mind of man." The former

is Revelation; the latter is Spiritual Illumination.


Those who hold to the illumination theory to account for the origin

of the Bible revelation claim that there is in every man an intuitive

faculty that grasps the supernatural, that lays hold of God and

spiritual things; and that whatever insight into the nature and

being of God is given man, is produced by the divine Spirit playing

upon this spiritual faculty in man, illuminating and irradiating

it, so that it sees the perfection of God and is enabled to penetrate

into His will.


According to this view, the Bible is the result of the meditations

of godly men whose minds were acted upon by God. Any revelation

of divinity of which man is the recipient, comes in this manner.

Subjective illumination God has carried on since the world began,

and is still carrying on by a great variety of methods. The Scriptures

are not in any way the oracles of God, nor do they come to us

as direct, logical utterances of the divine mind. The patriarchs,

prophets and apostles of old so deeply meditated on God and the

things of God that their spiritual faculties were enlarged and

illuminated to such a degree that they conceived of these visions

of God, His nature, His will, etc., as recorded in the Scriptures.


Now, it is true, doubtless, that a man may be granted a very deep

insight into the nature and being of God by spiritual meditation.

That a fire does burn in the Bible, we do not deny. Throughout

all ages of the Jewish and Christian churches men have lit their

spiritual torches at this fire, and in their light they have seen

Him who is invisible. This fire still burns, and to-day the devout

student may catch its flame if, with uncovered head, with shoeless

feet, and with humble spirit, he stands before the bush that ever

burns and yet is never consumed. But this working of the truth of

God on the mind of man is not God's revelation of His mind to man

which the Bible professes to be. The Bible must of necessity be not

merely a repository or receptacle of spiritual influences fitted

to act upon the mind; it must be--it is--God making Himself known

to men. It is God speaking to man through men.


In contradistinction to the illumination theory we have instances

in the Bible in which God made revelations of Himself, His truth,

and His will to men who were by no means at the time meditating

upon God. See e.g.:


John 11:49-52--"And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high

priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor

consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for

the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake

he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied

that Jesus should die for that nation; and not for that nation

only, but that also He should gather together in one the children

of God that were scattered abroad." See also Num. 22:34, 35.


c) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Verbatim Reporting.


Inspiration is not necessarily Verbatim Reporting.


It is not absolutely necessary to make such a claim to prove the

inspiration of the Scriptures. Verbatim Reporting is, in a sense,

a mere mechanical operation. It would have robbed the writers of

their individuality, and made them mere machines. But no; the Holy

Spirit used the memories, the intuitions, the judgments, and indeed

the idiosyncrasies of the writers, so that while each recorded

that part of the event or discourse which (as we may express it)

adhered to himself, he was enabled to give it with substantial

accuracy.


3. VARIOUS THEORIES OF INSPIRATION.


It will be in order here to note briefly various theories of

inspiration; for it must be known that all students do not agree

as to the degree of inspiration that characterized the writers

of the Scripture. When a man says, "I believe in the inspiration

of the Bible," it will be quite in place in these days to ask him

what he means by inspiration. Following are some of the views of

inspiration held at the present day.


a) Natural Inspiration.


This theory identifies inspiration with genius of a high order. It

denies that there is anything supernatural, mysterious, or peculiar

in the mode of the Spirit's operation in and upon the Scripture

writers. It claims that they were no more inspired than were Milton,

Shakespeare, Mahomet, or Confucius.


Such a theory we absolutely reject. For if such be the character

of the inspiration possessed by the Scripture writers, there is

nothing to assure us that they were not liable to make the same

errors, to teach the same false views of life, to give expression

to the same uncertainties concerning the past, the present, and

the future as did these shining lights of mere human genius.


When David said, "The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and His word

was in my tongue," he meant something more than the prayer which

forms the gem of _Paradise Lost._ When Isaiah and his brethren

said, "Thus saith the Lord," they claimed something higher than

that they were speaking under the stirrings of poetic rapture. When

Paul said to the Corinthians, "Which things also we speak, not in

the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost

teacheth (1 Cor. 2:13)," he used the language to which you will

find no parallel in the literature of mere human genius. And no

man of candor or intelligence can pass from the writings even of

the unapproachable Shakespeare into the perusal of the Bible without

feeling that the difference between the two is not one simply

of degree, but of kind; he has not merely ascended to a loftier

outlook in the same human dwelling, but he has gone into a new

region altogether. There is a certain "unknown quality" in this

Book which clearly distinguishes it from all others; and if we may

take its own explanation of the matter, that unknown quality is

its divine inspiration.


b) Universal Christian Inspiration, or Illumination.


According to this theory, the inspiration of the Bible writers was

the same as has characterized Christians of every age; the ordinary

Christian of to-day is inspired as much as was the Apostle Paul.


If this be the true view, there seems to be no plausible reason why

a new Bible should not be possible to-day. And yet no individual,

however extreme his claims to inspiration may be, has even ventured

such a task.


c) Mechanical, or Dynamic Inspiration. (See Verbatim Reporting,

page 198.)


This theory ignores the human instrumentality in the writing of

the Scriptures altogether, and claims that the writers were passive

instruments mere machines, just as insensible to what they were

accomplishing as is the string of the harp or lyre to the play of

the musician.


How, then, do we account for the differences in style of the

various writers, the preservation of their individualities, their

idiosyncrasies?


It seems evident that Scripture cannot be made to harmonize with

the application of this theory.


d) Concept, or Thought Inspiration.


This theory claims that only the concepts, or thoughts, of men were

given by inspiration. It will be examined more fully later. Concept

Inspiration is opposed by


e) Verbal Inspiration.


Here it is claimed that the very words of Scripture were given

by the Holy Spirit; that the writers were not left absolutely to

themselves in the choice of words they should use. (See page 204.)


f) Partial Inspiration.


The favorite way of expressing this theory is, "The Bible

_contains_ the Word of God."


This statement implies that it contains much that is not the Word

of God, that is, that is not inspired. A serious question at once

arises: Who is to decide what is and what is not inspired? Who

is to be the judge of so vital a question? What part is inspired,

and what part is not? Who can tell?


Such a theory leaves man in awful and fatal uncertainty.


g) Plenary, or Full, Inspiration.


This is the opposite of Partial Inspiration. It holds all Scripture

to be equally inspired, as stated on page 200. It bases its claim

on 2 Tim. 3:16.


The Revised Version translation of 2 Tim. 3:16 is erroneous. The

reader might infer from it that there is some Scripture that is

not inspired.


If Paul had said, "All Scripture that is divinely inspired is also

profitable, etc.," he would virtually have said, "There is _some_

Scripture, _some_ part of the Bible, that is _not profitable,

etc.,_ and therefore is not inspired." This is what the spirit

of rationalism wants, namely, to make human reason the test and

judge and measure of what is inspired and what is not. One man says

such and such a verse is not profitable to him, another says such

and such a verse is not profitable to him; a third says such and

such is not profitable to him. The result is that no Bible is left.


Is it possible that anyone need be told the flat and sapless tautology

that all divinely-inspired Scripture is _also_ profitable?

Paul dealt in no such meaningless phrases. The word translated

_also_ does not mean _also_ here. It means _and._

Its position in the sentence shows this.


Again, the Revised rendering is shown to be openly false because

the revisers refused to render the same Greek construction elsewhere

in the same way, which convicts them of error.


In Hebrew 4:13 we read: "All things are naked and laid open before

the eyes of Him with whom we have to do." The form and construction

of this verse is identical with that of 2 Tim. 3:16. Were we,

however, to translate this passage as the revisers translated the

passage in Timothy, it would read: "All naked things are also open

to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do." All naked things are

also open things! All uncovered things are also exposed things!

There is no _also_ in the case.


Again, 1 Tim. 4:4: "Every creature of God is good and nothing is

to be rejected." According to the principles the revisers adopted

in rendering 2 Tim. 3:16, this passage would read: "Every good

creature of God is also nothing to be rejected."


The Greek language has no such meaningless syntax. The place of

the verb _is,_--which must be supplied,--is directly before

the word "inspired," and not after it.


The great rationalistic scholar, DeWette, confessed candidly that

the rendering the revisers here adopted cannot be defended. In his

German version of the text, he gave the sense thus: "Every sacred

writing, i.e., of the canonical Scriptures, is inspired of God

and is useful for doctrine, etc." Bishops Moberly and Wordsworth,

Archbishop Trench, and others of the Revision committee, disclaimed

any responsibility for the rendering. Dean Burgon pronounced it "the

most astonishing as well as calamitous literary blunder of the age."

It was condemned by Dr. Tregelles, the only man ever pensioned by

the British government for scholarship.


In accordance with this weight of testimony, therefore, we hold

to the rendering of the Authorized Version, and claim that all

Scripture is equally and fully inspired of God.


4. THE CLAIMS OF THE SCRIPTURES TO INSPIRATION.


That the writers of the Scriptures claimed to write under the

direct influence of the Spirit of God there can be no doubt. The

_quality_ or _degree_ of their inspiration may be called

into question, but surely not the _fact_ of it. Let us examine

the testimony of the writers themselves.


a) The Claims of Old Testament Writers to Inspiration. (We use

the word Inspiration here as including Revelation.)


Compare and examine the following passages:


Exod. 4:10-15--"And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not

eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy

servant; but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. And the

Lord said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the

dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the Lord?

Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what

thou shalt say. And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the

hand of him whom thou wilt send. And the anger of the Lord was

kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy

brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh

forth to meet thee; and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his

heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth,

and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach

you what ye shall do."


Deut. 4:2--"Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you,

neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the

commandments of the Lord your God which I command you."


Jer. 1:7-9--"But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child:

for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I

command thee thou shalt speak. Be not afraid of their faces; for

I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. Then the Lord put

forth his hand, and touched my mouth. And the Lord said unto me,

Behold, I have put my words in thy mouth." Also Ezek. 3:4; Micah

3:8.


These are but a few of the many passages in which the inspiration

of the writers is affirmed and claimed.


Note further that the words "God said" occur ten times in the first

chapter of Genesis. It is claimed that such expressions as "The

Lord said," "The Lord spake," "The word of the Lord came," are

found 3,808 times in the Old Testament. These writers, claiming to

be the revealers of the will of God, almost always commenced their

messages with the words, "Thus saith the Lord." That they were not

deceived in their claims is evident from the minuteness and detail

as to names, times and places which characterized their messages,

and from the literal fulfillment of these oracles of God.


b) The Claims of the New Testament Writers to Inspiration.


It is worthy of note here to observe that inspiration is claimed

by New Testament writers for Old Testament writers as well as for

themselves. Read and compare the following passages:


2 Pet. 1:20, 21--"Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the

Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came

not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as

they were moved by the Holy Ghost."


1 Pet. 1:10, 11--"Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and

searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come

unto you: searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of

Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand

the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow."


Acts 1:16--"Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been

fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before

concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus." Acts

28:25--"And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed,

after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by

Esaias the prophet unto our fathers."


1 Cor. 2:13--"Which things also we speak, not in the words which

man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing

spiritual things with spiritual."


1 Cor. 14:37--"If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual,

let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the

commandments of the Lord."


1 Thess. 2:13--"For this cause also thank we God without ceasing,

because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us,

ye received it not as the word of men, but, as it is in truth, the

word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe."


2 Peter 3:1, 2--"This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto

you; in both which I stir up your pure minds by way of remembrance:

that ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by

the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of

the Lord and Saviour."


Matt. 10:20--"For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your

Father which speaketh in you."


Mark 13:11--"But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take

no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate;

but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye, for

it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost."


See also Luke 12:12; 21:14, 15; Acts 2:4.


It is evident from these and many other passages of Scripture that

the writers of both the Old and New Testaments were conscious of

having received revelations from God, and considered themselves

inspired of God to write the Scriptures. They felt while writing

that they were giving expression to the infallible truth of God, and

were conscious that the Holy Spirit was moving them to the work.


5. WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE INSPIRATION THAT CHARACTERIZED THE

WRITERS OF THE SCRIPTURES, AND IN WHAT DEGREE WERE THEY UNDER ITS

INFLUENCE?


Much has been said and written in answer to this question. Were

the _thoughts_ or _concepts_ alone inspired, or were the

_words_ also inspired? Were the words dictated by the Holy

Spirit, or were the writers left to choose their own words? These

are the knotty questions current today regarding the Inspiration

of the Bible. We may say with certainty that


a) At least Some of the Words of Scripture are the Identical Words

Written or Spoken by God Himself.


Note Exodus 32:16--"The writing was the writing of God"; Exodus

31:18--"Written with the finger of God." Compare also Deuteronomy

10:2, 4; 9:10; Exodus 24:12. See also 1 Chronicles 28:19 (R. V.)--"All

this, said David, have I been made to understand in writing from

the hand of Jehovah"; Daniel 5:5--There "came forth the finger of

a man's hand and wrote."


In the New Testament God is heard speaking both at the baptism and

the transfiguration of Jesus, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in

whom I am well pleased; hear ye him."


It is clearly evident from these passages that some part of the

inspired record claims to be a record of the exact words of God.


b) It is Also very Definitely Stated in Scripture that God Put

into the Mouths of Certain Men the Very Words They Should Speak,

and Told Them What They Should Write.


Exod. 4:10-15--"And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not

eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy

servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. And the

Lord said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the

dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the Lord?

Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what

thou shalt say. And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the

hand of him whom thou wilt send. And the anger of the Lord was

kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy

brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh

forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his

heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth:

and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach

you what ye shall do."


Exod. 34:27--"And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thou these words:

for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with

thee and with Israel." Num. 17:2, 3--"Speak unto the children of

Israel, and take of every one of them a rod according to the house

of their fathers, of all their princes according to the house of

their fathers, twelve rods: write thou every man's name upon his

rod. And thou shalt write Aaron's name upon the rod of Levi: for

one rod shall be for the head of the house of their fathers."


Isa. 8:1, 11, 12--"Moreover the Lord said unto me, Take thee a great

roll, and write in it with a man's pen concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz.

For the Lord spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed

me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying, Say

ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say,

A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid."


Jer. 1:7--"But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child:

for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I

command thee thou shalt speak."


Jer. 7:27--"Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them;

but they will not hearken to thee; thou shalt also call unto them;

but they will not answer thee."


Jer. 13:12--"Therefore thou shall speak unto them this word: This

saith the Lord God of Israel, Every bottle shall be filled with

wine: and they shall say unto thee, Do we not certainly know that

every bottle shall be filled with wine?"


Jer. 30:1, 3--"The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying.

Thus speaketh the Lord God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the

words that I have spoken unto thee in a book."


Jer. 36: 1, 2, 4, 11, 27-32--"And it came to pass in the fourth

year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that this word

came unto Jeremiah from the Lord, saying, Take thee a roll of a

book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee

against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations,

from the day I spake unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto

this day. Then Jeremiah called Baruch the son of Neriah; and Baruch

wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord, which

he had spoken unto him, upon a roll of a book. When Michaiah the

son of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan, had heard out of the book

all the words of the Lord. . . . Then the word of the Lord came to

Jeremiah, after that the king had burned the roll, and the words

which Baruch wrote at the mouth of Jeremiah, saying, Take thee

again another roll, and write in it all the former words that were

in the first roll, which Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath burned.

And thou shalt say to Jehoiakim king of Judah, Thou saith the Lord;

Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein,

saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this

land, and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore

thus saith the Lord of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none

to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast

out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. And I

will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity;

and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem,

and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced

against them; but they hearkened not. Then took Jeremiah another

roll, and give it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah, who

wrote therein from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the book

which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire; and there

were added besides unto them many like words." Also Ezek. 2:7;

3:10, 11; 24:2; 37:16; Hab. 2:2; Zech. 7:8-12.


1 Cor. 14:37--"If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual,

let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the

commandments of the Lord."


Rev. 2:1, 8, 12, 18--"Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write;

These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right

hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candle-sticks

. . . . And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These

things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive

. . . . And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These

things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges . . . .

And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things

saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire,

and his feet are like fine brass." Also 3:1; 7:14.


Rev. 10:4--"And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices,

I was about to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying unto

me, Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and

write them not."


To sum up these two arguments, then, let us say, regarding the

nature of the inspiration of the sacred writings, that part of them

claim to be the very words and writings of God Himself, spoken by

His own mouth, or written by His own hand: that another part claim

to be the record of words spoken to certain men who wrote them

down just as they were spoken. And yet if this is all that is

involved in inspiration, shall we not be robbed of a very beautiful

and helpful fact, namely, that the Holy Spirit saw fit to preserve

the characteristics of the writers? Do not the works of James,

the faith of Paul, and the love of John appeal to us in their own

peculiar way? This leads to the statement that


c) In a Certain Sense, and in Respect to Some Parts of the Scripture,

the Authors Were (Humanly Speaking) Left to Choose Their Own Words

in Relating Divine Truth.


This was by no means true of all the sacred writings. There are

instances recorded of men who spoke without knowing what they were

saying; and of men and animals speaking without knowledge of the

substance of their message:


John 11:49-52--"And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high

priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor

consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for

the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake

he not of himself; but being high priest that year, he prophesied

that Jesus should die for that nation; and not for that nation

only, but that also he should gather together in one the children

of God that were scattered abroad."


Num. 22:28-30--"And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she

said unto Balaam, What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten

me these three times? And Balaam said unto the ass, Because thou

has mocked me: I would there were a sword in mine hand, for now

would I kill thee. And the ass said unto Balaam, Am not I thine

ass, upon which thou hast ridden ever since I was thine unto this

day? was I ever wont to do so unto thee? And he said, Nay."


Dan. 12:8, 9--"And I heard, but I understood not: then said I,

0 my Lord, what shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go

thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the

time of the end."


And yet the gift of inspiration admitted of personal, diligent,

and faithful research into the facts recorded--Luke 1:1-4.


This fact allowed the expression of the same thought in different

words, such differences (by no means discrepancies) between

the accounts of inspired men as would be likely to arise from the

different standpoint of each. Examples: Matt. 26:26, 27--"And as

they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it,

and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,

Drink ye all of it."


Luke 22:19, 20--"And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it,

and gave unto them, saying, this is my body which is given for you;

this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper,

saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed

for you."


1 Cor. 11:24, 25--"And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and

said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you; this do

in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup,

when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my

blood; this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me."


Matt. 3:17--"And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved

Son, in whom I am well pleased."


Mark 1:11--"And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art

my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."


Luke 3:22--"And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a

dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art

my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased."


The Spirit employed the attention, the investigation, the memory,

the fancy, the logic, in a word, all the faculties of the writer,

and wrought through them. He guided the writer to choose what

narrative and materials, speeches of others, imperial decrees,

genealogies, official letters, state papers or historical matters

he might find necessary for the recording of the divine message of

salvation. He wrought in, with, and through their spirits, so as to

preserve their individuality to others. He used the men themselves,

and spoke through their individualities. "The gold was His; the

mould was theirs."


DID INSPIRATION AFFECT THE WORDS USED?


If the question be asked whether or not inspiration affected the

words, it must be answered in the affirmative. It is hardly possible

that inspiration could insure the correct transmission of thought

without in some way affecting the words. Yet it affected the words

not directly and immediately by dictating them in the ears of the

writers, but mediately, through working on their minds and producing

there such vivid and clear ideas of thoughts and facts that the

writers could find words fitted to their purpose.


We must conclude, therefore, that while from the divine side the

Holy Spirit gave through men clearly and faithfully that which

He wished to communicate, from the human side that communication

came forth in language such as men themselves would naturally have

chosen.


This may seem to some to be an impossibility, and they would allege

that if the words were affected by inspiration at all, there must

have been dictation. But the must is a _non sequitur._ It

is admitted that God works His purposes in the world through the

ordinary actions of men, while yet no violence is done to their

freedom. It is admitted, also, that God, through the gracious

operations of His Holy Spirit, works in the hearts of His people

so as to develop in each of them the new man, while yet the

individuality of each is preserved; and the type of piety is just

as distinct in each Christian as the style is in each of the sacred

writers. These cases are so nearly parallel as to suggest that all

denials of the possibility of inspiration without the destruction

of the individual characteristics are as unphilosophical as they

are unwarranted.


We may therefore safely say that in a very real sense the words

as well as the thoughts have been given, whether mediately or

immediately, under the influence of the divine Spirit. We claim

that the Bible is in deed and in truth the very Word of God; that

it is the Word of God in the language of men; truly divine, and at

the same time truly human; that it is the revelation of God to His

creatures; that infallible guidance was given to those who wrote

it, so as to preserve them from error in the statement of facts;

that what the writers of the Scriptures say or write under this

guidance is as truly said and written by God as if their instrumentality

were not used at all; that the ideas expressed therein are the

very ideas the Holy Ghost intended to convey; that God is in the

fullest sense responsible for every word. This is what the Bible

claims for itself.







THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS.


I. THEIR EXISTENCE.


   1. THE TEACHING OF JESUS.

   2. THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES.


II. THEIR NATURE.


   1. CREATED BEINGS.

   2. SPIRITUAL BEINGS.

   3. GREAT POWER AND MIGHT.

   4. VARIOUS GRADES.

   5. THE NUMBER OF ANGELS.


III. THE FALL OF ANGELS.


   1. TIME AND CAUSE.

   2. THE WORK OF FALLEN ANGELS.

   3. THE JUDGMENT OF FALLEN ANGELS.


IV. THE WORK OF ANGELS.


   1. THEIR HEAVENLY MINISTRY.

   2. THEIR EARTHLY MINISTRY.

      a) In Relation to the Believer.

      b) In Relation to Christ's Second Coming.





THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS.


We are not to think that man is the highest form of created being.

As the distance between man and the lower forms of life is filled

with beings of various grades, so it is possible that between man

and God there exist creatures of higher than human intelligence

and power. Indeed, the existence of lesser deities in all heathen

mythologies presumes the existence of a higher order of beings

between God and man, superior to man and inferior to God. This

possibility is turned into certainty by the express and explicit

teaching of the Scriptures. It would be sad indeed if we should allow

ourselves to be such victims of sense perception and so materialistic

that we should refuse to believe in an order of spiritual beings

simply because they were beyond our sight and touch. We should

not thus shut ourselves out of a larger life. A so-called liberal

faith may express unbelief in such beings. Does not such a faith

(?) label itself narrow rather than liberal by such a refusal of

faith? Does not a liberal faith mean a faith that believes _much,_

not little--as much, not as little, as possible?


I. THEIR EXISTENCE.


1. THE TEACHING OF JESUS.


Matt. 18:10--"For I say unto you, That in heaven their angels

do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven." Mark

13:32--"But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the

angels which are in heaven." 8:38; Matt. 13:41; 26:53.


These are a sufficient number of passages, though they are by no

means all, to prove that Jesus believed in the existence of angels.

Jesus is not here speaking in any accommodative sense. Nor is He

simply expressing a superstitious belief existing among the Jews

at that time. This was not the habit of Jesus. He did not fail to

correct popular opinion and tradition when it was wrong, e.g., His

rebuke of the false ceremonialism of the Pharisees, and the unbelief

of the Sadducees in the resurrection. See also the Sermon on the

Mount (Matt. 5:20-37).


2. THE TEACHING OF PAUL, AND OTHER APOSTLES.


2 Thess. 1:7--"And to you who are troubled, rest with us, when the

Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels,"

Col. 2:18--"Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary

humility and worshipping of angels." Is not one of the principal

reasons for the writing of the Epistle to the Colossians to correct

the gnostic theory of the worshipping of angels? See also Eph.

1:21, Col. 1:16. John believed in an angelic order of beings: John

1:51; Rev. 12:7; 22:9. Peter: 1 Pet. 3:22; 2 Pet. 2:11. See also

Jude 9; Luke 22:43; Mark 8:38; Heb. 12:22. These and numerous other

references in the Scriptures compel the candid student of the Word

to believe in the existence of angels.


II. THE NATURE OF ANGELS.


1. THEY ABE CREATED BEINGS.


Col. 1:16--"For by him were all things created, that are in heaven,

and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be

thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things

were created by him, and for him." Angels are not the spirits of

the departed, nor are they glorified human beings (Heb. 12:22, 23).

Neh. 9:6--"Thou, even thou, art Lord alone; thou hast made heaven,

the heaven of heavens, with all their host."


2. THEY ARE SPIRITUAL BEINGS.


Heb. 1:14--"Are they not all ministering spirits?" Psa. 104:4--"Who

maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming fire." It is

thought by some that God creates angels for a certain purpose, and

when that purpose is accomplished they pass out of existence. But

that there are many, many angels in existence all the time is clear

from the teaching of the Scriptures.


Although the angels are "spirits," they nevertheless oft-times have

appeared to men in visible, and even human form (Gen. 19; Judges

2:1; 6:11-22; Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26; John 20:12). There seems to

be no sex among the angels, although wherever the word "angel" is

used in the Scriptures it is always in the masculine form.


3. THEY ARE BEINGS OF GREAT MIGHT AND POWER.


2 Pet, 2:11--"Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might

(than man)." Psa. 103:20--"Angels that excel in strength." One angel

was able to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, and other guilty cities;

one angel smote the first-born, and rolled away the great stone

from the mouth of the tomb. One angel had power to lay hold of that

old dragon, the devil (Rev. 20:2, 10); one angel smote a hundred

and fourscore and five thousand Assyrians (Isa. 37:36). Their power

is delegated; they are the angels of _His_ might (2 Thess.

1:7), the ministers through whom God's might is manifested. They

are mighty, but not almighty.


4. THERE ARE VARIOUS RANKS AND ORDERS OF ANGELS.


We read of Michael, the archangel (Jude 9; 1 Thess. 4:16); angels,

authorities, and powers--which are supposedly ranks and orders of

angels (1 Pet. 3:22; Col. 1:16). In the Apocryphal books we find

a hierarchy with seven archangels, including Michael, Gabriel,

Raphael, Uriel. The fact that but one archangel is mentioned in

the Scriptures proves that its doctrine of angels was not derived,

as some supposed, from Babylonian and Persian sources, for there

we find seven archangels instead of one.


5. THE NUMBER OF ANGELS.


Heb. 12:22, R. V.--"Innumerable hosts of angels." Cf. 2 Kings 6:17;

Matt. 26:53; Job 25:3.


III. THE FALL OF ANGELS.


Originally all angels were created good. The Scriptures speak of

a fall of angels--"the angels that sinned."


2 Pet. 2:4--"For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast

them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to

be reserved unto judgment." Jude 6--"And the angels which kept not

their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved

in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great

day."


1. THE TIME OF THE FALL OF ANGELS.


Some maintain that it took place before the creation recorded

in Genesis 1:2--between verses one and two; that it was this fall

which made the original creation (Gen. 1:1) "waste and void." This

view can neither be proven nor refuted, nevertheless the great

and awful fact of a fall of angels remains. (See under Doctrine of

Satan, p. 225, for fall of angels in connection with the fall of

Satan.)


2. THE CAUSE OF THE FALL OF ANGELS.


Peter does not specify the sin. Jude says they "kept not their first

estate, but left their own habitation." This, taken in connection

with Deut. 32:8, which seems to indicate that certain territories

or boundaries were appointed unto the angels, and Gen. 6:1-4,

which speaks of the "sons of God" (which some suppose to refer to

angels, which, however, is questionable), might seem to imply that

the sin of the angels consisted in leaving their own abode and coming

down to cohabit with the "daughters of men." Thus their sin would

be that of lust. To some expositors the context in Jude would

seem to warrant such a conclusion, inasmuch as reference is made

to the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah. But this can hardly be true,

for a close study of the text in Genesis 6 shows that by "the sons

of God" are meant the Sethites. This would seem to be the true

interpretation; if so, then the sin recorded in Genesis 6 would

be (1) natural and not monstrous; (2) Scriptural, and not mythical

(cf. Num. 25; Judges 3:6; Rev. 2:14, 20-22 contains sins of a similar

description); (3) accords with the designations subsequently given

to the followers of God (Luke 3:38; Rom. 8:14; Gal. 3:26); (4) has

a historical basis in the fact that Seth was regarded by his mother

as a (the) son of from God, (5) in the circumstance that already

the Sethites had begun to call themselves by the name of Jehovah

(Gen. 4:26); (6), finally, it is sufficient as a hypothesis, and

is therefore entitled to the preference (after Lange).


There are still others who say that the sin of the angels was pride

and disobedience. It seems quite certain that these were the sins

that caused Satan's downfall (Ezek. 28). If this be the true view

then we are to understand the words, "estate" or "principality" as

indicating that instead of being satisfied with the dignity once

for all assigned to them under the Son of God, they aspired higher.


3. THE WORK OF FALLEN ANGELS.


They oppose God's purposes (Dan. 10:10-14); afflict God's people

(Luke 13:16; Matt. 17:15, 16); execute Satan's purposes (Matt.

25:41; 12:26, 27); hinder the spiritual life of God's people (Eph.

6:12); try to deceive God's people (1 Sam. 28:7-20).


4. THE JUDGMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS.


Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4; Matt. 25:41, show that there is no hope of

their redemption. Their final doom will be in the eternal fire.

According to 1 Cor. 6:3 it would seem as though the saints were to

have some part in the judgment of fallen angels.


IV. THE WORK OF ANGELS.


1. THEIR HEAVENLY MINISTRY.


Isa. 6; Rev. 5:11, 12; 8:3, 4--priestly service and worship.


2. THEIR EARTHLY MINISTRY.


To the angels has been committed the administration of the affairs

material to sense, e.g., showing Hagar a fountain; appearing before

Joshua with a drawn sword; releasing the chains from Peter, and

opening the prison doors; feeding, strengthening, and defending

the children of God. To the Holy Spirit more particularly has been

committed the task of imparting the truth concerning spiritual

matters.


In general: Angels have a relation to the earth somewhat as follows:

They are related to winds, fires, storms, pestilence (Psa. 103:20;

104:4; 1 Chron. 21:15, 16, 27). The nation of Israel has a special

relationship to angels in the sense of angelic guardianship (Dan.

12:1; Ezek. 9:1; Dan. 11:1).


In particular: Angels have a special ministry with reference to

the church of Jesus Christ--the body of believers. They are the

saints' "ministering servants" (Heb. 1:14)--they do service for

God's people. Illustrations: To Abraham (Gen. 19); to Gideon (Judg.

6); to Mary (Luke 1); to the shepherds (Luke 2); to Peter (Acts

12); to Paul (Acts 27).


a) They Guide the Believer.


They guide the worker to the sinner (Acts 8:26), and the sinner

to the worker (Acts 10:3). Note: The angel guides, but the Spirit

instructs (8:29). Are angels interested in conversions? (Luke 15:10).

How they watch our dealing with the unsaved!


b) They Cheer and Strengthen God's People.


1 Kings 19:5-8; Matt. 4:11; Luke 22:43; cf. Acts 27:4-35; 5:19.


c) They Defend, Protect, and Deliver God's Servants.


Dan. 6:22; Acts 5:19; 2 Kings 6:18; Gen. 19:11; Acts 12:8-ll; 27:23,

24.


d) They Are Eyewitnesses of the Church and the Believer.


1 Tim. 5:21--in matters of preaching, the service of the church,

and soul-saving, the angels look on--a solemn and appalling thought.

1 Cor. 4:9--the good angels are spectators while the church engages

in fierce battle with the hosts of sin. This is an incentive to

endurance. 1 Cor. 11:10--"Because of the angels." Is there intimated

here a lack of modesty on the part of the women so shocking to

the angels, who veil their faces in the presence of God when they

worship.


e) They Guard the Elect Dead.


Luke 16:22; Matt. 24:31. Just as they guarded Christ's tomb, and

as Michael guarded Moses' tomb (Jude 9).


f) They Accompany Christ at His Second Coming.


Separating the righteous from the wicked (Matt. 25:31, 32; 2 Thess.

1:7, 8). Executing God's wrath upon the wicked (Matt. 13:39-42, R.

V. How this is done, no human pen can describe. The most fearful

imagery of the Bible is connected with the judgment work of angels

(cf. Revelation; fire, hail, blood, plague of locusts, poison of

scorpions, etc.)--whether actual or symbolic, it is awful.







THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN.


I. HIS EXISTENCE AND PERSONALITY.


   1. EXISTENCE.

   2. PERSONALITY.


II. HIS PLACE AND POWER.


   1. A MIGHTY ANGEL.

   2. PRINCE OF POWER OF THE AIR.

   3. GOD OF THIS WORLD.

   4. HEAD OF KINGDOM OF DARKNESS.

   5. SOVEREIGN OVER DEATH.


III. HIS CHARACTER.


   1. ADVERSARY.

   2. DIABOLOS.

   3. WICKED ONE.

   4. TEMPTER.


IV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS SATAN.


   1. LIMITED POWER OF SATAN.

   2. RESIST HIM.


V. HIS DESTINY.


   1. A CONQUERED ENEMY.

   2. UNDER ETERNAL CURSE.


VI. DEMONS.





THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN.


Throughout the Scriptures Satan is set forth as the greatest enemy

of God and man. Too long has Satan been a subject of ridicule

instead of fear. Seeing the Scriptures teach the existence of a

personality of evil, man should seek to know all he can about such

a being. Much of the ridicule attached to the doctrine of Satan

comes from the fact that men have read their fancies and theories

into the Scriptures; they have read Milton's _Paradise Lost_

but have neglected the Book of Job; they have considered the

experiences of Luther instead of the Epistles of Peter and Jude.

To avoid skepticism on the one hand, and ridicule on the other

we must resort to the Scriptures to formulate our views of this

doctrine.


I. THE EXISTENCE AND PERSONALITY OF SATAN.


1. HIS EXISTENCE.


To science the existence of Satan is an open question; it neither

can deny nor affirm it. Satan's existence and personality can be

denied therefore only on purely _a priori_ grounds. The Bible,

however, is very clear and positive in its teaching regarding the

existence of a personality of evil called the devil. It is popular

in some circles today to spell devil with the "d" left off, thus

denying his real existence.


Matt. 13:19, 39--"Then cometh the wicked one . . . . The enemy

that sowed them is the devil." John 13:2--"The devil having now

put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray

him." See also Acts 5:3; 2 Cor. 11:3, 14; 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6.


How Satan came to be is not quite as clear a fact as that he

exists. In all probability he was once a good angel. It is claimed

by scholarly and reliable interpreters that his fall is portrayed

in Ezekiel 28:12-19; cf. Isa 14:12-14. That he was once in the truth

but fell from it is evident from John 8:44. His fall (Luke 10:18)

was probably in connection with the fall of angels as set forth

in such passages as 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6. Pride (?) was one of the

causes (1 Tim. 3:6; Ezek. 28:15, 17). This fact may account for

the expression "Satan and his angels" (Matt. 25:41). Paul doubtless

refers to the fact that Satan was once an angel of light (2 Cor.

11:14). Whenever Satan is represented under the form of a serpent,

we are to understand such expressions as describing him after his

fall. There is certainly no ground for presenting the evil one as

having horns, tail, and hoofs. This is only to bring into ridicule

what is an exceedingly serious fact. A careful consideration of

all the scriptures here given will assure the student that Satan

is not a figment of the imagination, but a real being.


2. HIS PERSONALITY.


John 8:44--"Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your

father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode

not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh

a lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar, and the father

of it." 1 John 3:8--"He that committeth sin is of the devil; for

the devil sinneth from the beginning." Satan is here set forth as

a murderer, a liar, a sinner--all elements of personality. He had

the "power over death" (Heb. 2:14), and is the "prince of this

world" (John 14:30).


The narrative of Satan in Job. (cc. 1, 2) strongly emphasizes his

personality. He is as much a person as the "sons of God," Job,

and even God himself. Zech. 3:1, 2; 1 Chron. 21:1; Psa. 109:6 also

emphasize the fact of Satan's personality. Throughout all these

Scriptures the masculine personal pronoun is used of Satan, and

attributes and qualities of personality are ascribed to him. Unless

we veto the testimony of the Scriptures we must admit that Satan

is a real person. How can any one read the story of the temptation

of Christ (Matt. 4:1-11) and fail to realize both parties in the

wilderness conflict were persons--Christ, a person; Satan, a person?


Such offices as those ascribed to Satan in the Scriptures require

an officer; such a work manifests a worker; such power implies

an agent; such thought proves a thinker; such designs are from a

personality.


Our temptations may be said to come from three sources: the world,

the flesh, and the devil. But there are temptations which we feel

sure come from neither the world nor the flesh, e.g., those which

come to us in our moments of deepest devotion and quiet; we can

account for them only by attributing them to the devil himself.

"That old serpent, the devil, has spoken with fatal eloquence to

every one of us no doubt; and I do not need a dissertation from

the naturalist on the construction of a serpent's mouth to prove

it. Object to the figure if you will, but the grim, damning fact

remains." --_Joseph Parker._


There can scarcely be any doubt as to the fact that Christ taught

the existence of a personality of evil. There can be but three

explanations as to the meaning of His teaching; first, that He

accommodated His language to a gross superstition, knowing it to be

such--if this be true then what becomes of His sincerity; second,

that He shared the superstition not knowing it to be such--then

what becomes of His omniscience, of His reliability as a Teacher

from God? third, that the doctrine is not a superstition, but

actual truth--this position completely vindicates Christ as to His

sincerity, omniscience and infallibility as the Teacher sent from

God.


II. THE PLACE AND POWER OF SATAN.


1. A MIGHTY ANGEL.


He was such, and probably is yet. Jude 8, 9--They "speak evil

of dignities. Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the

devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against

him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee." Daniel

10 shows that Satan has power to oppose one of the chief angels (vv.

12, 13 in particular). In Luke 11:21 Christ calls Satan "a strong

man armed." He is "the prince of this world" (John 14:30).


2. PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR.


Eph. 2:2--"The prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now

worketh in the children of disobedience." Cf. 6:11, 12. He is also

prince of the demons or fallen angels, Matt. 12:24; 9:34; Luke

11:14-18. There is doubtless an allusion here to the fact that the

world of evil spirits is organized, and that Satan is at its head.

3. THE GOD OF THIS WORLD.


2 Cor. 4:4--"In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds

of them which believe not." He is "the prince of this world" (John

12:31; 14:30; 16:11; cf. Eph. 2:1, 2; 1 John 5:19). Satan is not

only the object of the world's worship, but also the moving spirit

of its godless activities.


4. HE HEADS A KINGDOM WHICH IS HOSTILE TO THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND

OF CHRIST.


Acts 26:18--"To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to

light, and from the power of Satan unto God." Col. 1:13--"Who hath

delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us

into the kingdom of his dear Son." The kingdom of light is headed

by a person--Jesus Christ; the kingdom of darkness, by a person--Satan.

The one is a person equally with the other.


5. HAS SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE REALM OF DEATH.


Heb. 2:14--"That . . . . he might destroy him that had the power

of death, that is, the devil." It would seem as if the souls of

the unregenerate dead are (or were) to some extent under Satan's

dominion.


III. THE CHARACTER OF SATAN.


"We may judge of the nature and character of the evil one by the

names and titles ascribed to him."


1. THE ADVERSARY, OR SATAN.


Zech. 3:1--"And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before

the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist

him." (See vv. 1-5.) 1 Pet. 5:8--"Your adversary the devil." Luke

10:18. See for use of the word: Num. 22:22. By adversary is meant

one who takes a stand against another. Satan is the adversary of

both God and man.


2. THE DEVIL, DIABOLOS.


Matt. 13:39--"The enemy . . . . is the devil." John 8:44--"Ye are

of your father the devil." This name is ascribed to Satan 33 times

at least in the New Testament, and indicates an accuser or slanderer

(Rev. 12:9). He slanders God to man (Gen. 3:1-7), and man to God

(Job 1:9; 2-4).


3. THE WICKED ONE.


Matt. 13:19--"Then cometh the wicked one." Matt. 6:13 (R. V.); 1

John 5:19 (R. V.). This title suggests that Satan is not only wicked

himself, but is also the source of all wickedness in the world.


4. THE TEMPTER.


Matt. 4:3--"And when the tempter came to him." See Gen. 3:1-6.

None escape his temptations. He is continually soliciting men to

sin.


In this connection we may speak of the cunning and malignity of

Satan (Gen. 3:1). Satan transforms himself into an angel of light

(2 Cor. 11:14). This phase of his work is well illustrated in the

temptation of Christ (Matt. 4:1-11), and the temptation of Eve (Gen.

3). He fain would help Christ's faith, stimulate His confidence

in the divine power, and furnish an incentive to worship. The

Scriptures speak of the "wiles" or subtle methods of the devil (Eph.

6:11, 12). The "old serpent" is more dangerous than the "roaring

lion."


Satan's subtlety is seen in tempting men in their weak moments

(Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 22:40-46); after great successes (John 6:15,

cf. vv. 1-14); by suggesting the use of right things in a wrong way

(Matt. 4:1-11); in deluding his followers by signs and wonders (2

Thess. 2:9, 10).


IV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS SATAN.


1. SO FAR AS THE BELIEVER IS CONCERNED HIS POWER IS LIMITED.


Job 1:9-12; 2:4-6. Satan had to ask leave of God to try Job. John

12:31; 16:11. Satan hath been already judged, i.e., his power and

dominion over believers was broken at the cross, by reason of Christ's

victory there. He had to ask permission to enter even swine (Matt.

8:30-32). Satan is mighty, but not almighty.


2. HE IS TO BE RESISTED.


1 Pet. 5:8, 9--"Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the

devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour;

whom resist steadfast in the faith." James 4:7--"Resist the devil,

and he will flee from you." This resistance is best accomplished

by submitting to God (Rom. 6:17-23; James 4:7), and by putting on

the whole armor of God (Eph. 6:10-20).


V. THE DESTINY OF SATAN.


1. HE IS A CONQUERED ENEMY.


That is, so far as the believer is concerned; John 12:31; 16:9,10;

1 John 3:8; Col. 2:15.


2. HE IS UNDER A PERPETUAL CURSE.


Gen. 3:14, cf. Isa. 65:25. There is no removal of the curse from

Satan.


3. HE IS FINALLY TO BE CAST ALIVE INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE, THERE TO

BE TORMENTED FOR EVER AND EVER.


Matt. 25:41; Rev. 20:10--"And the devil that deceived them was

cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the

false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever

and ever."


VI. DEMONS.


(See under "Fallen Angels," p. 217.)







THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS.


A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.

B. THE RESURRECTION.

C. THE JUDGMENT.

D. THE DESTINY OF THE WICKED.

E. THE REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.






THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS.


Under this caption are treated such doctrines as the Second Coming

of Christ, the Resurrection of both the righteous and wicked, the

Judgments, Final Awards, and Eternal Destiny.



   A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.


I. ITS IMPORTANCE.

   1. PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.

   2. THE CHRISTIAN HOPE.

   3. THE CHRISTIAN INCENTIVE.

   4. THE CHRISTIAN COMFORT.


II. ITS NATURE.


   1. PERSONAL AND VISIBLE COMING TO THE EARTH.

   2. DIFFERENT VIEWS.

   3. DISTINCTIONS.


III. ITS PURPOSE.

 WITH REFERENCE TO--

   1. THE CHURCH.

   2. THE UNREGENERATE.

   3. THE JEWS.

   4. THE ENEMIES OF GOD.

   5. THE MILLENNIUM.


IV. ITS DATE.

 

   1. DAY AND HOUR UNKNOWN.

   2. RECOGNIZING THE "SIGNS."

   3. IMMINENT.



A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.


I. ITS IMPORTANCE.


1. ITS PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.


It is claimed that one out of every thirty verses in the Bible

mentions this doctrine; to every one mention of the first coming

the second coming is mentioned eight times; 318 references to it

are made in 216 chapters; whole books (1 and 2 Thess., e.g.) and

chapters (Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 31, e.g.) are devoted to it.


It is the theme of the Old Testament prophets. Of course, they

sometimes merge the two comings so that it is not at first sight

apparent, yet the doctrine is there. (1 Pet. 1:11).


Jesus Christ bore constant testimony to His coming again (John

14:3; Matt. 24 and 25; Mark 13; Luke 21; John 21:22).


The angels, who bore such faithful testimony to Christ's first

advent, bear testimony to His second coming (Acts 1:11; cf. Heb.

2:2, for the faithfulness of their testimony).


The apostles faithfully proclaimed this truth (Acts 3:19, 20; 1

Thess. 4:16, 17; Heb. 9:28; 1 John 2:28; Jude 14, 15).


2. THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IS BIDDEN TO LOOK FORWARD TO CHRIST'S

SECOND COMING AS ITS GREAT HOPE.


Titus 2:13--"Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing

of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ." 2 Pet. 3:12. The

one great event, that which supersedes all others, towards which

the Church is to look, and for which she is to ardently long, is

the second coming of Christ.


G3. IT IS SET FORTH AS THE DOCTRINE WHICH WILL PROVE TO BE THE

GREATEST INCENTIVE TO CONSISTENT LIVING.


Matt. 24:44-46; Luke 21:34-36--"And take heed to yourselves,

lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and

drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you

unawares. . . . Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may

be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to

pass, and to stand before the Son of man." 1 John 2:28; 3:3. The

test which the church should apply to all questions of practice:

Would I like to have Christ find me doing this when He comes?


4. IT IS A DOCTRINE OF THE GREATEST COMFORT TO THE BELIEVER.


1 Thess. 4:14-18. After stating that our loved ones who had fallen

asleep in Christ should again meet with us at the coming of our

Lord, the apostle says, "Wherefore comfort one another with these

words."


Why then should such a comforting and helpful doctrine as this be

spoken against? Many reasons may be suggested: the unreadiness of

the church; preconceived views (2 Pet. 3:4); extravagant predictions

as to time; lack of knowledge of the Scriptures. May not the guilt

on our part for rejecting the second coming of Christ be as great

if not greater than that of the Jews for rejecting His first coming?


II. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.


1. A PERSONAL AND VISIBLE COMING.


Acts 1:11--"Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven?

This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so

come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." 1 Thess.

4:16, 17--"For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven." Rev.

1:7. From these scriptures we learn that by the second coming of

Christ is meant the bodily, personal, and visible coming of our

Lord Jesus Christ to this earth with His saints to reign.


2. ERRONEOUS VIEWS CONCERNING THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.


a) That the Second Coming Means Christ's Coming at Death.


This cannot be the meaning, because--


Death is not attended by the events narrated in 1 Thessalonians 4:16,

17. Indeed the second coming is here set forth as the opposite of

death for "the dead in Christ shall rise" from the dead when Christ

comes again. According to John 14:3, Christ comes for us, and

not we go to Him: "I will come again, and receive you unto myself."


John 21:21-23--"Peter seeing him (John) saith to Jesus, Lord, and

what shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he

tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou me. Then went

this saying abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should

not die; yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, if I

will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?"


1 Corinthians 15:50-57 declares that at the second coming of Christ

we overcome, not succumb to, death. See John 8:51; Matt. 16:28.


The foolishness of such interpretation is seen if we substitute the

word "death" for the second coming of Christ in such places where

this coming is mentioned, e.g., Phil. 3:20; Matt. 16:28--"Verily

I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste

of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom."


b) That the Second Coming Means the Coming of the Holy Spirit.


There is no doubt but that the coming of the Holy Spirit is a coming

(John 14:21-23), but it is by no means _the_ second coming,

and for the following reasons:


Many of the testimonies and promises of the second coming were

given _after_ Pentecost, e.g., Phil. 3:21; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 Thess.

4:16, 17; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52.


Christ does not receive us unto Himself, but comes to us, at

Pentecost. In the second coming He takes us, not comes to us.


The events of 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 17 did not occur on the day of

Pentecost, nor do they occur when the believer receives the Holy

Spirit.


c) That the Second Coming refers to the Destruction of Jerusalem.


Reply: The events of 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 17 did not take place

then.


John 21:21-23, and Rev. 22:20 were written _after_ the

destruction of Jerusalem.


From all that has been said then, it seems clear that the second

coming of Christ is an event still in the future.


3. THE NEED OF RECOGNIZING THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN CHRIST'S COMING

FOR HIS SAINTS AND WITH HIS SAINTS.


There is a distinction between the _presence_ and the

_appearing_ of Christ: the former referring to His coming

_for,_ and the latter _with_ His saints. We should

remember, further, that the second coming covers a period of time,

and is not the event of a single moment. Even the first coming

covered over thirty years, and included the events of Christ's

birth, circumcision, baptism, ministry, crucifixion, resurrection,

etc. The second coming will also include a number of events such as

the rapture, the great tribulation, the millennium, the resurrection,

the judgments, etc.


III. THE PURPOSE OF THE SECOND COMING.


1. SO FAR AS IT CONCERNS THE CHURCH.


1 Thess. 4:13-17; 1 Cor. 15:50-52; Phil. 3:20, 21, R. V.; 1 John

3:2. When Christ comes again He will first raise the righteous

dead, and change the righteous living; simultaneously they shall

be caught up to meet the Lord in the air to be with Him for ever.


Eph. 5:23, 32; 2 Cor. 11:2; Rev. 19:6-9; Matt. 25:1-10. The Church,

the Bride of Christ, will then be married to her Lord.


Matt. 25:19; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 Pet. 5:4; 1 Cor. 3:12-15; 2 Cor. 5:10.

Believers will be rewarded for their faithfulness in service at His

coming. (See under The Final Reward of the Righteous, page 266.)


2. SO FAR AS IT CONCERNS THE UNCONVERTED NATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS.


Matt. 24:30; Rev. 1:7; Matt. 25:31, 32; Rev. 20:11, 12; Isa.

26:21; 2 Thess. 1:7-9. A distinction must be recognized between

the judgment of the Living Nations, and that of the Great White

Throne. These are not the same, for no resurrection accompanies

the judgment of the Living Nations, as in the case of the throne

judgment. Further, one thousand years elapse between these two

judgments (Rev. 20:7-11). Again, one is at the beginning of the

Millennium, and the other at its close.


3. WITH REFERENCE TO THE JEWS.


The Jews will be restored to their own land (Isa. 11:11; 60) in an

unconverted state; will rebuild the temple, and restore worship

(Ezek. 40-48); will make a covenant with Antichrist for one week

(seven years), in the midst of which they will break the covenant

(Dan. 9:27; 2 Thess. 2); they will then pass through the great

tribulation (Matt. 24:21, 22, 29; Rev. 3:10; 7:14); are converted

(as a nation) at the coming of Christ (Zech. 12:10; Rev. 1:7);

become great missionaries (Zech. 8:13-23); never more to be removed

from the land (Amos 9:15; Ezek. 34:28).


4. WITH REGARD TO ANTICHRIST, AND THE ENEMIES OF GOD'S PEOPLE.


2 Thess. 1:7-9; Rev. 19:20; 20:10. These shall be destroyed by the

brightness of His coming; will be cast finally into the bottomless

pit.


5. TO SET UP THE MILLENNIAL REIGN ON THE EARTH.


The Millennium means the thousand years reign of Christ upon the

earth (Rev. 20:1-4). Some think that it is the continuation of the

_Kingdom Age_ broken off by the unbelief of the Jews at the

time of the Apostles.


The Millennium begins with the coming of Christ with His saints;

with the revelation of Christ after the great tribulation (Matt.

24:29, 30); at the close of the seventieth week of Daniel. For

illustration, see Rev. 19:11-14; Dan. 7:21, 22; Zech. 14:3-9.


Then comes the destruction of Antichrist, the binding of Satan,

and the destruction of the enemies of God's people (Rev. 19:20;

20:1-3, 10).


The Judgment of the Living Nations (Matt. 25).


The conversion and missionary activity of the Jews (Zech. 8:13-23;

cf. Acts 15:14-17). Then, we may have a converted world, but not

now, nor in this age; Israel, not the Church, then concerned.


The nature of the Millennium:


It is a Theocracy: Jesus Christ Himself is the King (Jer. 23:5; Luke

1:30-33). The Apostles will, doubtless, reign with Christ over the

Jews (Isa. 66; Matt. 19:28); the Church, over the Gentile nations

(Luke 19:11-19; Heb. 2:6, 7).


The capitol city will be Jerusalem (Isa. 2:1-4). Pilgrimages will

be made to the Holy City (Zech. 14:16). The reign of Christ will

be one of righteousness and equity (Isa. 11:4; Psa. 98:9).


A renovated earth (Rom. 8:19-31; Isa. 65:17; c. 35).


The events closing the Millennium are apostasy and rebellion (Rev.

20:7-9); the destruction of Satan (Rev. 20:10); the Great White

Throne judgment (Rev. 20:11-15); a new heaven and a new earth (Rev.

21 and 22).


IV. THE TIME OF CHRIST'S SECOND COMING.


We need to carefully distinguish between Christ's coming _for_

His saints--sometime called the "rapture" or "parousia"; and His

coming _with_ His saints--the "revelation" or "epiphany."


In considering the matter of the "signs" of Christ's coming we

need to pay particular attention to and distinguish between those

signs which have been characteristic of and peculiar to many

generations, and have, consequently, been repeated; and those which

are to characterize specifically the near approach of the coming

of Christ. Christians are not altogether in the dark concerning

these facts: Luke 21:29-33--"So likewise ye, when ye see these

things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at

hand" (v. 36). Also 1 Thess. 5:1-8--"But ye, brethren, are not in

darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief" (v. 4).


1. NO ONE KNOWS THE DAY NOR THE HOUR.


Matt. 24:36-42--"But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not

the angels of heaven, but my Father only" (v. 36). Mark 13:32, cf.

Acts 1:7.


The Scriptures tell us enough regarding the time of Christ's coming

to satisfy our faith, but not our curiosity. These statements of

the Master should be sufficient to silence that fanaticism which

is so anxious to tell us the exact year, month, and even the day

when Christ will come. This day is hidden in the counsels of God.

Jesus Himself, by a voluntary unwillingness to know, while in His

state of humiliation, showed no curiosity to peer into the chronology

of this event. We should not nor ought we to want to know more

than Christ did on this point. Can it be that "that day" was not

yet fixed in the counsels of the Father, and that its date depended,

somewhat at least, upon the faithfulness of the Church in the

evangelization of the world? We know not certainly. The Revelation

which Jesus gave to John would seem to teach that "that day,"

which was at one time hidden from Christ, is now, in His state of

exaltation, known to Him.


2. YET, WE MUST NOT FORGET THAT WHILE WE MAY NOT KNOW THE EXACT

DAY OR HOUR OF CHRIST'S COMING, WE MAY KNOW WHEN IT IS NEAR AT

HAND. (Matt. 24:36-42; 1 Thess. 5:1-5.)


There are certain "signs" which indicate its nearness:


General apostasy and departure from the faith (1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim.

3:1-5; Luke 18:8).


A time of great heaping up of wealth (James 5:1-9).


A time of great missionary activity (Matt. 24:14). Consider the

missionary activity of the last century. Is it not marvelous? Is

it a "sign" of His coming?


The modern history of the Jews throws much light on the question of

the nearness of Christ's coming. The following facts are interesting

in this connection: The large number of Jews returning to Palestine;

the waning of the power of the Turkish government, which has held

Palestine with an iron hand and has excluded the Jew; the plans

already before the nations to give the Holy Land to the Jews

by consent of the powers; the early and latter rain in Palestine;

railroads, electric lights, etc., now in the land long desolate--the

fig-tree is budding, and the hour of the coming is at hand.


It should not be forgotten in this connection that many of the signs

mentioned refer primarily to the coming of Christ _with_ His

saints. But if that stage of the coming be near then surely the

first stage of it must be. Other signs have reference to the first

stage in the one great event of His coming, which is known as the

"rapture" or Christ's coming _for_ His saints.


3. IT SEEMS CLEAR FROM THE TEACHING OF THE SCRIPTURES THAT THERE

IS NOTHING TO PREVENT THE COMING OF CHRIST FOR HIS SAINTS AT ANY

MOMENT.


By this is meant that there is nothing, so far as we can sea from

the teaching of the Scriptures and the signs of the times, to hinder

the introduction of the Day of the Lord, or the Second Coming of

Christ looked upon as a great whole--a series of events, by Christ's

coming to take His own people unto Himself. In other words, there

is nothing to hinder the "rapture" or "parousia"--the "epiphany,"

"manifestation," or "revelation" is something for a later day.


Some objections are offered to this view, the which it will be well

to examine and answer even though briefly.


First, That the Gospel has not been preached into all the world

(Matt. 24:14), therefore the coming of Christ is not imminent.


Reply: We must understand the emphatic words of the text: By "end"

is meant the end of the age; but the rapture, or Christ's coming

_for_ His saints, of which we are here speaking as being imminent,

is not the end of the age. By "world" is meant the inhabited earth;

by "Gospel," good news; by "witness," not conversion but testimony.

Even if these events are to precede the "rapture," have they not

all been fulfilled? See Acts 2:5; 8:4; Rom. 10:18; Col. 1:6, 23,

for the answer, which is certainly in the affirmative. We must

give the same meaning to the word "world" in Romans and Colossians

that we do to Matt. 24:14. Further, is the Church the _only_

witness? See Rev. 14:6. If the rapture is not the end of the age,

and if an angel can proclaim the Gospel, why cannot part of the

work of witnessing be carried on after the rapture?


Second, Peter, James, and John were told that they should not taste

of death until they had seen the coming of Christ's kingdom (Matt.

16:28; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27).


Reply: True, but was not this fulfilled when they saw Christ on the

Transfiguration Mount? Peter, who was there, in his second epistle

(1:16-18) distinctly says it was thus fulfilled.


Third, The disciples were told that they shall not have gone over

all the cities of Israel until the Son of Man be come (Matt. 10:23).


Reply: Mark 6:30, Luke 9:10 shows that they did not finish all the

cities, nor is there evidence anywhere that they ever did, for Israel

rejected the message of the kingdom. May it not be that under the

restoration of the Jews and the preaching of the "two witnesses"

(Rev. 11) this shall be accomplished?


Fourth, Christ said "This generation shall not pass, till all these

things be fulfilled." See Matt. 24:34; Luke 21:32; Mark 13:30.

Reply: What is meant by a "generation"? Some would say "forty years,"

consequently the Master referred to the destruction of Jerusalem,

which event was the second coming of Christ. But this is not

necessarily the case. The word "generation" may refer to the Jewish

_race;_ cf. the use of the same Greek word in Matt. 11:16;

16:4; Mark 8:38; Luke 7:31; 16:8; 17:25; Phil. 2:15; Psa. 22:30;

24:6. And in this connection consider carefully the wonderful

preservation of the Jewish race. Other nations have passed away,

having lost their identity; the Jew remains--that generation (race)

has not yet passed away, nor will it "till all these things be

fulfilled." [FOOTNOTE: _Jesus is Coming,_ by W.E.B., is heartily

recommended as an exceedingly helpful book on this subject. The

author is indebted thereto.]


B. THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD.


Under this caption is included the resurrection of both the righteous

and the wicked, although, as will be seen later, they do not occur

at the same time.



I. THIS DOCTRINE CLEARLY TAUGHT IN THE SCRIPTURES.


   1. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

   2. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.


II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION.


   1. LITERAL RESURRECTION OF THE BODIES OF ALL MEN.

   2. RESURRECTION OF THE BODY NECESSARY TO COMPLETE SALVATION.

   3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY.

      a) In General.

      b) The Body of the Believer.

      c) The Body of the Unbeliever.


III. THE TIME OF THE RESURRECTION.


   1. OF THE RIGHTEOUS.

   2. OF THE WICKED.



I. THE DOCTRINE OF A RESURRECTION CLEARLY TAUGHT IN THE SCRIPTURES.


1. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.


It is set forth in various ways:


_In Word:_ Job 19:25-27--"For I know that my redeemer liveth,

and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: and though

after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see

God: whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and

not another; though my reins be consumed within me." Also Psa.

16:9; 17:15; Dan. 12:1-3.


_In Figure:_ Gen. 22:5 with Heb. 11:19--"Accounting that God

was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he

received him in a figure."


_In Prophecy:_ Isa. 26:19--"Thy dead men shall live, together

with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell

in the dust." The words "men" and "together with" may be omitted--"Thy

dead (ones) shall live." These words are Jehovah's answer to Israel's

wail as recorded in vv. 17, 18. Even if they refer to resurrection

of Israel as a nation, they yet teach a bodily resurrection. See

also Hosea 13:14.


_In Reality:_ 1 Kings 17 (Elijah); 2 Kings 4:32-35 (Elisha

and the Shunamite's son); 13:21 (Resurrection through contact with

the dead bones of Elisha).


The Old Testament therefore distinctly teaches the resurrection of

the body. Mark 9:10, which might seem to indicate that the apostles

did not know of a bodily resurrection, is accounted for by their

unwillingness to believe in a crucified Christ.


2. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.


_In Word:_ Note the teaching of Jesus in John 5:28, 29; c. 6

entire, note especially vv. 39, 40, 44, 54; Luke 14:13, 14; 20:35,

36. The teaching of the apostles: Paul, Acts, 24:15; 1 Cor. 15; 1

Thess. 4:14-16; Phil. 3:11; John, Rev. 20:4-6; 13.


_In Reality:_ The resurrection of saints (Matt. 27:52,

53); of Lazarus (John 11); of Jesus Christ (Matt. 28). Our Lord's

resurrection assured them of what till then had been a hope

imperfectly supported by Scriptural warrant, and contested by the

Sadducees. It enlarged that hope (1 Pet. 1:3), and brought the

doctrine of the resurrection to the front (1 Cor. 15).


II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION.


1. A LITERAL RESURRECTION OF THE BODIES OF ALL MEN--A UNIVERSAL

RESURRECTION.


John 5:28--"Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the

which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall

come forth." 1 Cor. 15:22--"For as in Adam all die, even so in

Christ shall all be made alive." The apostle is speaking of physical

death in Adam, and physical resurrection in Christ.


Revelation 20:12, and 2 Corinthians 5:10 both show the necessity

of the raising of the body in order that judgment may take place

according to things done in the body. See also Job's hope (19:25-27);

David's hope (Psa. 16:9).


An objection is sometimes made to the effect that we literalize

these scriptures which are intended to be metaphorical and spiritual.

To this we reply: While the exact phrase, "resurrection of the

body," does not occur in the Bible, yet these scriptures clearly

teach a physical rather than a spiritual resurrection. Indeed John

5:25-29 draws a sharp contrast between a spiritual (v. 25) and a

literal (v. 28) resurrection. See also Phil. 3:21; 1 Thess. 4:13-17.

2 Tim. 2:18--"Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the

resurrection is passed already," indicates that the early church

believed in a literal resurrection. Surely there is no reference

here to a spiritual resurrection such as we read of in Ephesians

5:14. Acts 24:15 speaks of a resurrection of the just and the

unjust--this cannot refer to a spiritual resurrection surely. If

the resurrection were spiritual then in the future state every

man would have two spirits--the spirit he has here, and the spirit

he would receive at the resurrection. The term "spiritual body"

describes, not so much the body itself, as its nature. The "spiritual

body" is body, not spirit, hence should not be considered as defining

body. By the term "spiritual body" is meant the body spiritualized.

So there is a natural body--a body adapted and designed for the

use of the soul; and there is a spiritual body--a body adapted for

the use of the spirit in the resurrection day.


2. THE REDEMPTION OF THE BODY IS INCLUDED IN OUR COMPLETE REDEMPTION.


Rom. 8:11-23--"And not only they, but ourselves also, which have

the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within

ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of

our body" (v. 23). See also 1 Cor. 6:13-20. In John 6:39 and Job

19:25-27 we are taught that the dust into which our bodies have

decayed will be quickened, which indicates a physical resurrection.


This conception of the value of the body is doubtless what leads

to the Christian's care for his dead loved ones and their graves.

The believer's present body, which is called "the body of his

humiliation" (Phil. 3:21) is not yet fitted for entrance into the

kingdom (1 Cor. 15:50). Paul's hope is not for a deliverence from

the body, but the redemption of it (2 Cor. 5:4).


3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY.


a) In General.


Because the Scripture teaches a literal resurrection of the body

it is not necessary to insist on the literal resurrection of the

identical body--hair, tooth, and nail--that was laid under the

ground. The idea that at the resurrection we are to see hands flying

across the sea to join the body, etc., finds no corroboration in

the Scriptures. Such an idea is not necessary in order to be true

to the Bible teaching. Mere human analogy ought to teach us this

(1 Cor. 15:36, 37)--"thou sowest not that body which shall be."

The identity is preserved--that is all that we need to insist upon.

What that identity tie is we may not yet know. After all it is not

so much a question of material identity as of glorified individuality.

The growth of the seed shows that there may be personal identity

under a complete change of physical conditions.


Four things may be said about the resurrection body: first, it

is not necessarily identical with that which descended into the

grave; second, it will have some organic connection with that which

descended into the grave; third, it will be a body which God, in

His sovereignty, will bestow; fourth, it will be a body which will

be a vast improvement over the old one.


b) The Body of the Believer.


Phil. 3:21 (R. V.)--"Who shall fashion anew the body of our

humiliation, that it may be conformed to the body of his glory,

according to the working whereby he is able even to subject all

things unto himself." See also 1 John 3:2; 1 Cor. 15:49.


What was the nature and likeness of Christ's resurrection body

which our resurrection body is to resemble? It was a real body

(Luke 24:39); recognizable (Luke 24:31; John 20:16); powerful (John

20:19).


Summing up these passages, we may say that the resurrection body

of the believer will be like the glorified body of Christ.


Characteristics of the believer's resurrection body as set forth

in 1 Cor. 15: It is not flesh and blood (vv. 50, 51; cf. Heb.

2:14; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; Luke 24:39)--"flesh and bones," so not pure

spirit; a real body.


It is incorruptible (v. 43)--no decay, sickness, pain.


It is glorious (v. 43), cf. the Transfiguration (Matt. 17); Rev.

1:13-17. It has been said that Adam and Eve, in their unfallen

state, possessed a glorious body. The face of Stephen was glorious

in his death (Acts 6:15). 2 Cor. 3:18.


It is powerful (v. 43)--not tired, or weak; no lassitude; cf. now

"spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak"; not so then.


It is a spiritual body (v. 44). Here the soul is the life of the

body; there the spirit will be the life of the body.


It is heavenly (v. 47-49).


c) The Resurrection Body of the Unbeliever.


The Scriptures are strangely silent on this subject. It is worthy

of note that in the genealogies of Genesis 5 no age is attached

to the names of those who were not in the chosen line. Is there

a purpose here to ignore the wicked? In the story of the Rich Man

and Lazarus no name is given to the godless rich man; why?


III. THE TIME OF THE RESURRECTION.


1. THE RESURRECTION OF THE RIGHTEOUS.


John 6:39, 40, 44--"The last day." This does not mean a day of

twenty-four hours, but a period of time. It will be safe, usually,

to limit the word "day" to a period of twenty-four hours only where

numeral, ordinal, or cardinal occurs in connection therewith, like

"fourth day," etc. When the "day of grace," "day of judgment,"

"this thy day," etc., are mentioned, they refer to periods of time

either long or short, as the case may be.


1 Cor. 15:23--"But every man in his own order: Christ the

firstfruits; afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming." 1

Thess. 4:14-17. In both these passages the resurrection of the

believer is connected with the coming of Christ. This event ushers

in the last day; it is treated as a separate and distinct thing.


2. THE RESURRECTION OF THE WICKED.


As there is a difference in the issue (John 5:28, 29; Dan. 12:2,

cf. literal Hebrew rendering below) so there is as to time between

the resurrection of the righteous and that of the wicked. Phil.

3:11--"If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of

(lit. out of) the dead." It was no incentive to Paul simply to be

assured that he would be raised from the dead; for he knew that

all men would be thus raised. What Paul was striving for was to be

counted worthy of that first resurrection--of the righteous from

among the wicked. The resurrection "out from among" the dead is the

resurrection unto life and glory; the resurrection "of" the dead

is to shame and contempt everlasting.


1 Cor. 15:21-24. Note the expressions used, and their meaning:

"Then," meaning the next in order, the Greek denoting sequence, not

simultaneousness--each in his own cohort, battalion, brigade (cf.

Mark 4:28--"First the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn

in the ear"). Nineteen hundred years have already elapsed between

"Christ the firstfruits" and "they that are Christ's." How many years

will elapse between the resurrection of "they that are Christ's"

and that of the wicked ("the end") we may not be able to definitely

state, but certainly long enough for Christ to have "put all enemies

under his feet" (v. 25). Three groups or ranks are here mentioned:

"Christ," "they that are Christ's," "the end" (the resurrection of

the wicked). (Cf. vv. 5, 6, 7--"Seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:

after that . . . after that . . . then . . . and last of all he

was seen of me also.") First Christ, afterwards (later than) "they

that are Christ's" then (positively meaning afterwards, a new era

which takes place after an interval) "cometh the end."


Dan. 12:2--"And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth

shall awake, some (lit. those who awake at this time) to everlasting

life, and some (lit. those who do not awake at this time) to shame

and everlasting contempt." Some of the most eminent Hebrew scholars

translate this passage as follows: "And (at that time) many (of thy

people) shall awake (or be separated) out from among the sleepers

in the earth dust. These (who awake) shall be unto life eternal,

but those (who do not awake at that time) shall be unto contempt

and shame everlasting." It seems clear from this passage that all

do not awake at one (this) time, but only as many as are written

in the book (12:1).


Revelation 20:4-6 shows that at least a thousand years--whatever

period of time may be thereby designated--elapses between the

resurrection of the righteous and the wicked.


John 5:28, 29; Dan. 12:2; Rev. 20:12 all show that the resurrection

of the wicked is always connected with the judgment, and that takes

place at the close and not at the beginning of the Day of the Lord.


Whatever difficulties may present themselves in connection with the

resurrection, whatever obstacles of a miraculous or supernatural

nature may present themselves in connection therewith are to be

met by remembering the truth enunciated by Christ in connection

with this very subject: Matt. 22:29--"Ye do err, not knowing the

scriptures, nor the power of God." (Cf. v. 23.--"The same day came

to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection,"

etc., and the following verses for the setting of v. 39.)


C. THE JUDGMENT.


I. THE FACT OF THE JUDGMENT.


   1. AS TAUGHT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

   2. AS TAUGHT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

   3. THE TESTIMONY OF CONSCIENCE.

   4. THE TESTIMONY OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION.


II. THE JUDGE--CHRIST.


III. THE NATURE OF THE JUDGMENT.


   1. JUDGMENT AT THE CROSS.

   2. THE DAILY JUDGMENT.

   3. FUTURE JUDGMENT.

      a) Of the Saints.

      b) Of the Living Nations.

      c) Of the Great White Throne.

      d) Of the Fallen Angels.

      e) Of Israel.


C. THE JUDGMENT.


I. THE FACT OF THE JUDGMENT.


1. DISTINCTLY TAUGHT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.


Psa. 96:13--"For he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he

shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his

truth." While this passage refers more particularly to the rewarding

of the righteous, yet the idea of judgment is here. Both reward

and punishment are involved in the idea of judgment.


2. THE NEW TESTAMENT.


Acts 17:31--"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will

judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained;

whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath

raised him from the dead." Heb. 9:27. Just as it is "appointed unto

men once to die" so it is appointed unto men to appear before the

judgment. There is no more escape from the one than from the other.

It is part of the burden of both the Old and New Testament message

that a day of judgment is appointed for the world. God's kingdom

shall extend universally; but a judgment in which the wicked are

judged and the righteous rewarded is necessary and in order that

the kingdom of everlasting righteousness may be established upon

the earth.


3. THE CONSCIENCE OF ALL MANKIND CORROBORATES THE TEACHING OF THE

SCRIPTURES WITH REGARD TO THE CERTAINTY OF A COMING JUDGMENT.


This is true of both the individual and universal conscience.

The discoveries of tablets as well as the history of all peoples

establish this fact. This is enforced by Eccl. 11:9; 12:14--a

book which is in a very real sense a book of worldly philosophy,

narrating, as it does, the experiences and observations of a man

who judged all things from the view-point of "under the sun," i.e.,

without special reference to any revelation from above.


4. THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST IS A SURE AND CERTAIN PROOF

WHICH GOD HAS GIVEN TO MEN OF A COMING JUDGMENT.


Acts 17:31 (quoted above). Here is "assurance" in the sense of

proof or ground of evidence. The context is suggestive: God had

long borne with the sins of men, and in a sense, overlooked them.

Therefore men have thought that God would continue to do so. But no,

this shall not be; there is a day of judgment coming, the evidence

of which lies in the fact of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.


II. THE JUDGE--CHRIST.


John 5:22, 23, 27; 2 Tim. 4:1; 2 Cor. 5:10; Acts 10:42; 17:31.

The Man of the Cross is the Man of the Throne. Note the expression

"Because he is the Son of Man." That indicates His fitness to

judge: He can sympathize. But He is equal with the Father. This

too indicates His competency to judge, for it implies omniscience.

The texts which speak of God as judging the world are to be understood

as referring to God the Son. No appeal can be made from the Son to

the Father.


III. THE NATURE OF THE JUDGMENT.


The erroneous idea that there is to be one great general judgment

which is to take place at the end of the world, when all mankind

shall stand before the great white throne, is to be guarded against.

The judgments of the Bible differ as to time, place, subjects, and

results.


1. THERE IS A JUDGMENT THAT IS ALREADY PAST--THE JUDGMENT AT THE

CROSS.


John 5:24; 12:31; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13; 1 Pet. 3:24. At this judgment

bar Satan was judged and his power over the believer broken. Here

also the sins of the believer were judged and put away.


2. THERE IS A PRESENT JUDGMENT WHICH IS TAKING PLACE DAILY IN THE

LIFE OF THE BELIEVER.


1 Cor. 11:31, 32; 5:5; 1 Tim. 1:20; cf., for illustration, 2 Sam.

7:14, 15; 12:13,14. This continual judgment must be going on in

the life of the believer or there will be judgment from God because

of the consequent failure to grow in grace. There must be constant

and continual judging of sin as it comes up in the believer's life

(1 John 1:5-7).


3. THERE IS A FUTURE JUDGMENT.


a) Of the Saints.


1 Cor. 3:8-16; 2 Cor. 5:10; 1 Cor. 4:5. This is to be a judgment

with reference to the works, not the salvation, of the believer.

It is called "the judgment seat of Christ." That the saints are

here referred to is clear from 2 Cor. 5:1, 5, 7, 9; also 1 Cor. 4:5

which says that those who are judged "shall have praise of God."

This is not true of the wicked. This is a judgment, not for destiny,

but for adjustment, for reward or loss according to our works, for

position in the kingdom; every man according as his work shall be.


b) Of the Living Nations.


Matt. 25:31-46. This judgment will take place at the coming of

Christ with His saints. Note three things in this chapter: first,

the marriage supper of the Lamb (w. 1-13); second, the judgment of

the saints (vv. 14-30); third, the judgment of the living nations

(vv. 31-46). This is not a general judgment of good and bad, for

there are three classes here. "My brethren" can hardly refer to

the saints, for then it would be "inasmuch as ye have done it unto

yourselves, ye have done it unto me." Nor is the Church in this

judgment, for she is already translated and rewarded as we have

seen. The Church no more belongs to the nations than does Israel.

The nations are those who deal with Israel through the great

tribulation. The "brethren" are probably the Jewish remnant who

have turned to Christ during the great tribulation and whom the

Antichrist has severely persecuted as also have many of the wicked

nations, like Russia today. This is a judgment of nations that are

living; there is no mention of the dead.


c) Of the Great White Throne.


Rev. 20:11-15. It is called the final judgment and takes place

at the close of the millennium, after the judgment of the living

nations (Matt. 25). It is a judgment of "the dead"; no mention is

made of the living in connection therewith.


Note the difference between the judgments of the Living Nation and

of the Great White Throne: the former at the beginning, the latter

at the close of the millennium; one deals with the living, the other

with the dead; one deals with conduct towards "the brethren," the

other with general sins recorded in the books.


d) Of Israel.


Ezek. 20:33-44; Psa. 50:16-22. Takes place probably at the end of

the great tribulation.


e) Of the Fallen Angels.


Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4. Believers are associated with Christ in this

judgment (1 Cor. 6:3).


D. THE FINAL DESTINY OF THE WICKED.


I. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.



   1. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FUTURE OF THE RIGHTEOUS AND WICKED.

   2. DIFFICULTY OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.

   3. DISPARITY IN NUMBER OF THE SAVED AND LOST.

   4. PROPHECY VS. HISTORY.



II. THE WICKED DIE IN THEIR SINS.


III. THE WICKED ARE NOT ANNIHILATED.


IV. THE WICKED ARE RAISED FROM THE DEAD FOR JUDGMENT.


V. THE PUNISHMENT DESCRIBED.



   1. DEATH.

   2. ETERNAL.

   3. PUNISHMENT.

   4. FIRE.

   5. DARKNESS.



D. THE FINAL DESTINY OF THE WICKED.


"Every view of the world has its eschatology. It cannot help raising

the question of the whither, as well as of the what and the whence?

'0, my Lord,' said Daniel to the angel, 'what shall be the end of

these things?' (12:8). What is the end, the final destiny of the

individual? Does he perish at death, or does he enter into another

state of being; and under what conditions of happiness or woe does

he exist there? What is the end, the final aim of the great whole,

that far-off divine event towards which the whole creation moves?

It is vain to tell man not to ask these questions. He will ask

them, and must ask them. He will pore over every scrap of fact, or

trace of law, which seems to give an indication of an answer. He

will try from the experience of the past, and the knowledge of the

present, to deduce what the future shall be. He will peer as far

as he can into the unseen; and, where knowledge fails, will weave

from his hopes and trusts pictures and conjectures.


"The Christian view of the world also has its eschatology. The

Christian view, however, is positive, where that of science is

negative; ethical, where it is material; human, where it is cosmogonic;

ending in personal immortality, where this ends in extinction and

death. The eschatology of Christianity springs from its character

as a teleological religion--it seeks to grasp the unity of the

world through the conception of an end or aim."--_James Orr._


This is probably the hardest of all the doctrines of Christianity

to be received. If we ask the reason why, we receive various answers.

Some would tell us that this doctrine is unwelcome to many because

they feel themselves guilty, and their conscience tells them that

unless they repent and turn to God this awful doom awaits them.

Others believe that it is because the thought of future punishment

strikes terror to people's hearts, and therefore this doctrine is

repulsive to them. To others again, the thought of future anguish

seems utterly incompatable with the fatherly love of God. Yet it

is acknowledged to be a remarkable fact that both Jesus and John,

who more than any one else in the New Testament represent the

element of love in their lives and teaching, speak most of the

future anguish of the wicked.


That future punishment of the wicked holds a prominent place in

the teachings of the Scriptures there can be no reasonable doubt.

What is between the covers of the Bible is the preacher's message.

Yet great care must be exercised in the teaching or proclamation of

this doctrine. After all it is not the saying of hard things that

pierces the conscience of people; it is the voice of divine love

heard amid the thunder.


Yet there must be no consciousness of cowardice in proclaiming the

doctrine of future retribution, however awful its delineation may

be. Fear is a legitimate motive to which we may appeal, and while

it may be classed among the lower motives, it is nevertheless true

that it is the only motive that will effectively move some people

to action.


SOME RECOGNIZED FACTS.


There are certain preliminary facts which should be recognized in

the discussion of this subject:


1. That it shall be well with the righteous, and woe to the wicked

(Isa. 3:10, 11). That there is to be retribution for sin and a

reward for the righteous must be held to be beyond question, and

must be recognized as an unchangeable law. One cannot very well

meddle with that truth without serious danger. So long as a man

persistently, willingly and knowingly continues in his sin he must

suffer for it. That suffering the Bible calls eternal death.


2. We must recognize that much of the language of the Scripture

dealing with this condition is couched in figurative terms. But

the condition is none the less real because of that, for, generally

speaking, the reality is more severe than the figure in which it is

set forth. Yet we need caution here, and must distinguish between

the things that are stated in clear unmistakable language and those

that are set forth in words symbolic and figurative.


3. The disparity in the number of saved and lost. There is a danger

lest we should be unmindful of the problems connected with this

doctrine, such as that seeming fewness of the saved; the condition

of the heathen who have not had a chance to hear the Gospel; and

the difference in privilege and opportunity among those who live

in so-called Christian lands.


4. Prophecy vs. History. We must recognize that it is more difficult

to deal with facts which lie in the future than with those lying

in the past. Prophecy is always more difficult to deal with than

history. The past we may sketch in details, the future but in broad

outlines.


"Our treatment of themes that deal with the future must, in the

very nature of the case be very different than it would be were

we dealing with the things of the past. History and prophecy must

be handled differently. In dealing with the history of God's past

revelations--with the ages before the Advent, with the earthly

life and revelation of Jesus Christ, with the subsequent course

of God's providence in the Church--we are dealing with that which

has already been. It stands in concrete reality before us, and we

can reason from it as a thing known in its totality and its details.

But when the subject of revelation is that which is yet to be,

especially that which is yet to be under forms and conditions of

which we have no direct experience, the case is widely altered.

Here it is at most outlines that we can look for; and even these

outlines will be largely clothed in figure and symbol; the spiritual

kernel will seek material investiture to body itself forth; the

conditions of the future will require to be presented largely in

forms borrowed from known relations. The outstanding thoughts will

be sufficiently apparent, but the thoughts in which these thoughts

are cast will partake of metaphor and image."--_James Orr._


II. THE WICKED ARE SAID TO "DIE IN THEIR SINS."


John 8:21, 24--"Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and

ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye

cannot come. I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your

sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your

sins." Rom. 6:23--"For the wages of sin is death." See Rev. 20:14,

15; 21:8.


The "death" spoken of here does not mean cessation of existence any

more than eternal life means the beginning of existence. Eternal

life does not mean merely to live for ever, but to live in a state

of blessedness for ever. Eternal life deals not so much with quantity

as with quality of existence. Just so with eternal death. It is

a quality of existence, not cessation of being. Even in this life

death can co-exist with life: "But she that liveth in pleasure is

dead while she liveth" (1 Tim. 5:6); Eph. 2:1. What men call life

God calls death. There are two things which the believer gets: at

his regeneration, eternal life; at his resurrection, immortality;

but in both instances he already has life and existence. So it is

in the case of the wicked: the second death does not mean cessation

of existence, for he is dead already, now in this life (1 Tim.

5:6; Eph. 2:1; John 5:24, 25). Rev. 21:8 describes what "death,"

as here used, means: "But the fearful, and the unbelieving... shall

have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone:

which is the second death."


III. THE WICKED ARE NOT ANNIHILATED.


The texts most strongly urged as teaching the annihilation theory,

if rightly interpreted, will be seen to refer to removal from off

the earth, and not to future retribution. Here are the principal

passages:


Psa. 37:20--"But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of the

Lord shall be as the fat of lambs: they shall consume; into smoke

shall they consume away." This psalm is written for the encouragement

of Israel and against her enemies and their power on the earth. This

earthly power shall be utterly broken, and be of no more account

than the smoke of a burnt sacrifice. The great truth taught here

is that the earth is the inheritance of the saints, and that the

wicked shall have no part in it.


Obadiah 16--" . . . And they shall be as though they had not been."

These words are taken from the vision regarding Edom, and refer

to the destruction of the Edomites and their land, and not to the

future of the wicked in the next life.


In speaking of the "everlasting punishment" with which the wicked

will be visited, as recorded in 2 Thess. 1:9, the annihilationist

would say that reference is made to the "results or consequences"

of that punishment and not to the punishment itself. But the

Scriptures state that it is the "punishment" itself, and not the

consequences, that is everlasting.


No such interpretation as that put upon these passages by those holding

the annihilation theory can be maintained by sound exegesis. What

need is there of a resurrection if the wicked are to be annihilated

at death, or why should they be raised from the dead if only to

be at once extinguished for ever? Again, there is no such thing

as "unconscious" punishment. You cannot punish anything that is

unconscious. Can you punish a stone or a house? Punishment can

take place only where there is consciousness on the part of the

one suffering.


IV. THE WICKED ARE TO BE PUNISHED.


Rom. 2:8, 9--"But unto them that are contentious, and do not

obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,

tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil,

of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile." "Wrath" indicates the

settled mind of God towards the persistently wicked (John 3:36);

"indignation," the outbreak of that wrath at the day of judgment;

"tribulation," severe affliction (Matt. 13:21; 24:9; Rev. 7:14);

"anguish," torturing confinement in a strait place without relief,

as in a dungeon, or in stocks. God grant that we may never know

what these terms fully mean.


Matt. 25:41, 46--"Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand,

Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the

devil and his angels. And these shall go away into everlasting

punishment." 2 Thess. 1:7-9--"When the Lord Jesus shall be revealed

from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance

on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord

Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction

from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."

See also Mark 9:43-50 which speaks of the wicked being cast into

"hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: where their worm

dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."


There are certain important words in these scriptures which demand

our attention, and which we need to understand in order to get right

views of the doctrine we are now considering. They are as follows:


1. "ETERNAL."


We read of "eternal" or "everlasting" punishment, "everlasting"

fire. It is objected that the word "eternal" or "everlasting" does

not mean "forever." This may be true. But we are all willing to

admit that when this word qualifies the condition of the righteous

it means for ever, without end, e.g., the righteous shall go "into

life eternal." The same word, however, qualifies the punishment of

the wicked, e.g., "these shall go away into everlasting punishment."

Fairness demands that we make the joy of the righteous and the

punishment of the wicked--both qualified as they are by the same

Greek word--of the same duration. If there is an end to the reward

of the righteous, there is also to the penalty of the wicked. The

one lasts as long as the other. If "destruction" means annihilation,

then there is no need of the word "eternal" to qualify it. Further

the Scriptures present the punishment of the wicked not only as

"eternal" (or age-long) but as enduring "for ever and ever," or

"unto the ages of the ages" (Rev. 19:3; 20:10; 14:11, R. V.). Here

is a picture of ages tumbling upon ages in eternal succession.


2. "PUNISHMENT."


The meaning of this word will be found under the previous division

(III) dealing with the subject of Annihilation.


3. "FIRE."


This is one of the most constant images under which the torment

and misery of the wicked is represented. Fire is a symbol of the

divine judgment of wrath (Matt. 5:22). In Matthew 3:10 the godless

are represented as a tree hewn down and cast into the fire; in 3:12

the chaff (godless) is burned with unquenchable fire; in 13:42 the

wicked are said to be cast into a furnace of fire.


Is the "fire" spoken of here _literal_ fire? It is an accepted

law of language that a figure of speech is less intense than the

reality. If "fire" is merely a figurative expression, it must

stand for some great reality, and if the reality is more intense

than the figure, what an awful thing the punishment symbolized by

fire must be.


It is contended that fire must necessarily consume; that nothing

could continue to exist in fire. Is it not remarkable that the

Baptist uses the word "unquenchable"' (Greek, "asbestos") when

speaking of this fire? Is any light thrown on the question by the

incident of the three Hebrew children in the fiery furnace? Did

they consume, or did they withstand the fire? (Dan. 3:27). In the

parable of the Tares (Matt. 13:36-43) our Lord speaks of the tares

being burned up. When Christ retired to the house after delivering

the parable, his disciples asked Him to explain to them what He meant

by the figures of speech He used in the parable. This request He

granted. He explained the figurative language of the parable; every

figurative word in it except that of "fire." He said: "The field

is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but

the tares are the children of the wicked one; the enemy that sowed

them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the

reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and

burned in the fire, so shall it be at the end of this world. .

. . And they shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall

be wailing and gnashing of teeth." Why did not the Master explain

what he meant by the figurative word "fire"? He explained all the

other figurative words, why not this one? Did He forget? Or did

He intend that His disciples should have the impression that He

was speaking of literal fire? Here was His opportunity to explain

His use of words, for the disciples were asking for just that very

thing. Was there any significance in the fact that Jesus did not

explain the word "fire"? Whether we believe in literal fire or not,

we certainly ought to ask for a reason for the Master's failure to

literalize the figurative word "fire."


4. "DARKNESS."


This word is used to describe the condition of the lost: "Cast

into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."

Seven times these terms are found together: Matt. 8:12; 13:42, 50;

22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28. The picture is that of a banquet

which was usually held at night. The wicked are thrust out from

the light, joy, and festivity into the darkness and gloom without,

as into the remote gloom and anguish of a dungeon in which are found

agony, wrath, and despair. Is this a description of hell --absence

of spiritual light; separation from the company of the saved;

lamentation; impotent rage?


E. THE FINAL REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.


I. THE BELIEVER NEVER DIES.


II. THE BELIEVER GOES TO BE WITH CHRIST.


III. THE BODY OF THE BELIEVER IS RAISED FROM THE DEAD.


IV. THE BELIEVER IS REWARDED.


V. THE NATURE OF THE BELIEVER'S REWARD.



   1. THE "CROWNS" OF SCRIPTURE.

   2. THE SEVEN "OVERCOMES" (REV. 2 AND 3).



VI. THE NEW CONDITION AND ABODE OF LIFE FOR THE SAINTS.



   1. NEW SPHERE OF LIFE.

   2. A NEW HOME.

   3. NEW CONDITIONS.



E. THE FINAL REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.


If, says the Apostle Paul, in this present life we have a hope

resting on Christ, and nothing more, we are more to be pitied than

all the rest of the world (1 Cor. 15:19). The idea is that if this

hope in Christ which the believer has is a delusive hope, with

no prospect of fulfillment in the future, the Christian is indeed

in a sad state. He has chosen a life of self-denial; he will not

indulge in the pleasures of the world, and if there are no pleasures

in the darkness into which he is about to enter, then he has

miscalculated, he has chosen a life that shall end in self-obliteration.

If he has no home to go to, no God to welcome him, no King to say,

"Well done, exchange mortality for life," then he is indeed in a

pitiable plight. But such is not the case. The hope of the Christian

enters beyond the vail, into the very presence of God Himself, and

endures throughout all the eternities.


I. THE CHRISTIAN NEVER DIES.


1 John 8:51--"Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep

my saying, he shall never see death." 11:25, 26--"Jesus said unto

her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me,

though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and

believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?"


What Jesus means here is not that the believer shall not pass

through the experience that we call death, but that in reality it

is not death, at least, not in the sense in which it is death to

the unbeliever. Jesus has taken the sting out of death. How sharply

the contrast between death and the experience through which the

believer passes is presented in 1 Thess. 4:13, 14--"But I would

not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are

asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. For

if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also

which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him." Jesus "died"--He

tasted the awfulness of death; the believer in Him "falls asleep."

Cf. John 11:11--"Our friend Lazarus sleepeth." We have no ground

in these words for the modern doctrine of soul-sleeping. Christ

did not mean to say that the soul is unconscious between the time

of death and the resurrection. For, when the disciples did not

understand His _figurative_ language, He told them _plainly,_

"Lazarus is dead" (11:11-15). What Jesus meant was that death is

something like that which takes place when we go to sleep. What

takes place when we go to sleep? Surely the current of life does not

cease, but flows on, and when we awake we feel better and stronger

than before. There is a shutting out of all the scenes of the world

and time. Just so it is in the case of the believer's death. Three

ideas are contained in the word "sleep": continued existence,--for

the mind is active even though the body is still; repose--we lose

our hold on and forget the things of the world; wakening--we always

think of sleep as followed by awakening.


The word "see" in John 8:51 means that the believer shall not gaze

at death protractedly, steadily, exhaustively. Death is not the

objective of his gaze. The believer's outlook is that of life not

death. The death of the body is to be reckoned no more as death

than the life of the body is life (1 Tim. 5:6). The believer's back

is turned upon death; he faces and gazes upon life. The temporary

separation of the soul and body does not even interrupt, much less

impair, the eternal life given by Jesus.


II. THE BELIEVER GOES TO BE WITH CHRIST.


2 Cor. 5:6, R. V.--"Being therefore always of good courage, and

knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent

from the Lord." Phil. 1:23, R. V.--"But I am in a strait betwixt

the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ; for it is

very far better."


The experience (death-sleep) through which the believer passes ushers

him at once into the presence of Christ. It takes him instantly

to be "at home" with the Lord. Surely there can be no hint of

unconsciousness or the sleeping of the soul in these words. It

would seem from Paul's words in 2 Corinthians 5:1-5 that some kind

of spiritual body is given to the believer during the period of

his waiting for the resurrection body. What Paul longs for is not

to be in a bodiless state, but to put on another body which shall

not be subject to death. "At home with the Lord"--that is what

"death" (?) means to the believer.


III. THE BODY OF THE BELIEVER IS RAISED FROM THE DEAD.


See under the Doctrine of the Resurrection for the full discussion

of the believer's resurrection body, its characteristics, etc.


IV. THE BELIEVER SHALL RECEIVE HIS FINAL REWARD IN THE FUTURE.


1 Matt. 25:20-23--"And so he that had received five talents came

and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto

me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents

more. His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful

servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make

thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou

deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other

talents beside them. His lord said unto him, Well done, good and

faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I

will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of

thy lord."


Luke 19:12-19.--"He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a

far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. And

he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said

unto them, Occupy till I come. But his citizens hated him, and sent

a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign

over us. And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having

received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called

unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how

much every man had gained by trading. Then came the first, saying,

Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds. And he said unto him,

Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very

little, have thou authority over ten cities. And the second came

saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds. And he said likewise

to him, Be thou also over five cities."


Matthew 24 exhorts us to watch and wait for Christ's coming;

chapter 25 shows us how we may obey this exhortation. Chapter 25

illustrates to us, in the parable of the Virgins (vv. 1-13) the

necessity of caring for the inward spiritual life; while the parable

of the Talents (vv. 14-30), emphasizes the necessity of activity

for Christ while awaiting His return.


While both parables deal with the matter of the rewarding of

the saints, they nevertheless present the subject from different

viewpoints. The parable of the Pounds was delivered before the entry

into Jerusalem; that of the Talents, three days after; the Pounds,

to the multitudes; the Talents, to the disciples. The Pounds was

given because the people thought that the kingdom would immediately

appear, hence the idea of a long journey. In the Pounds there is

opposition to Christ; in the Talents, none. In the Talents unequal

sums are multiplied in the same proportion; in the Pounds, equal

sums in differed proportions. The parable of the Pounds was uttered

to repress impatience; that of the Talents, to stimulate activity

until Christ should return.


The talents are distributed not capriciously but according to each

man's ability to handle them. He who had five talents was able to

use five, and was therefore held responsible for the use of this

number; so with the two, and the one. The question is not so much

"How many talents have I received," but "To what use am I putting

them?" The rewards for faithfulness are the same in each case--"Be

thou ruler over many cities." In the parable of the Pounds it is

different. All start out with the same number of pounds. As men

differ in their use of them, in their fidelity, zeal and labor,

so they differ in spiritual gains and rewards (ten cities, five

cities). The reward of the believer will be in proportion to the

faithfulness of his service for God with the use of the talents

with which God has endowed him. The rewards therefore will differ

according to the faithfulness or unfaithfulness of our service and

life.


Faith in Jesus Christ saves the believer, but his position in the

future life together with the measure of his reward will depend

upon his faithfulness in the use of the gifts with which he has

been endowed by God. Thus it comes to pass that a man may be saved

"yet so as by fire," i.e., saved because of his faith in Christ,

but minus his reward. See 1 Cor. 3:10-15--"In discharge of the

task which God graciously entrusted to me, I--like a competent

master-builder--have laid a foundation, and others are building

upon it. But let every one be careful how and what he builds. For

no one can lay any other foundation in addition to that which is

already laid, namely, Jesus Christ. And whether the building which

anyone is erecting on that foundation be of gold or silver or

costly stones, of timber or hay or straw--the true character of

each individual's work will become manifest. For the day of Christ

will disclose it, because that day is soon to come upon us clothed

in fire, and as for the quality of every one's work--the fire is

the thing which will test it. If any one's work--the building which

he has erected--stands the test, he will be rewarded. If any one's

work is burned up, he will suffer the loss of it; yet he will

himself be rescued, but only, as it were, by passing through the

fire." (Translation from _Weymouth's New Testament._) While

this passage has its primary reference, probably, to Christian

teachers and preachers, and touches the matter of doctrines that

are taught, it nevertheless has a fitting and true application to

the life and work of every believer.


V. THE NATURE OF THE BELIEVER'S REWARD.


1. HE SHALL RECEIVE A CROWN.


The Scriptures speak of a number of crowns: The Crown of _Life_

(James 1:12; Rev. 2:10, compare context which speaks of death); of

_Glory_ (1 Pet. 5:4; cf. John 17:22; Heb. 2:9); of

_Righteousness_ (2 Tim. 4:8), the full realization of the

imputed and inwrought righteousness of Christ; of _Rejoicing_

(1 Thess. 2:19), at the sight of converts that have been won by one's

ministry for Christ; of _Gold_ (Rev. 4:4); _Incorruptible_

(1 Cor. 9:25), as compared with the perishable crowns of the Greek

games; _Thy_ crown (Rev. 3:11), that which is laid up for you,

and which should not be lost by unfaithfulness; the summing up of

all the previous expressions--all are characteristic of "thy" crown.


2. THE SEVEN "OVERCOMES" IN REVELATION (cc. 2, 3.).


a) 2:7--"Eat of the Tree of Life, Which is in the Midst of the

Paradise of God."


The tree of life, which has been practically unmentioned since Genesis

3, where it was lost through sin, is here restored in accordance

with the restitution of all things in Christ. This figure expresses

participation in life eternal--the believer shall die no more.


b) 2:11--"Shall Not be Hurt of the Second Death."


He who is born but once--"of the flesh"--dies twice: physically,

and eternally. He (the believer) who is born twice--"of the flesh"

and "of the spirit"--dies but once; that is, he passes through only

that physical dissolution of soul and body which is called death.

The "second death" means, to say the least, utter exclusion from

the presence of God. To say that the believer shall not be hurt of

the second death is equivalent to saying that he shall eternally

behold the face of the Father which is in heaven.


c) 2:17--He shall Receive a "Stone with a New Name Written" Thereon;

To the Believer also will be Given to Eat of the "Hidden Manna."


This figure may mean that to the believer is given the white stone

of acquittal. In courts of justice in those days a black stone

was given to the condemned. Reference may here be made to the

white stone (diamond?) which was not among the stones in the high

priest's ephod, and thought by some to be the Urim and Thummim.

The partaking of the hidden manna may refer to the fact that they

who had resisted the eating of meat offered in sacrifice to idols

would, as a reward, be allowed to feast on the bread of God, the

divine food. The new name mentioned may stand for a new nature and

character which the believer will possess in that new country.


d) 2:26, 27--Authority Over the Nations.


There is doubtless a reference here to the reign of the saints

with the Lord Jesus Christ on the millennial earth. Those that have

suffered with Him shall also reign with Him.


e) 3:4, 5--He Shall Be "Arrayed in White Garments," and His Name

Shall in No Wise be Blotted Out of the Book of Life.


"White garments" undoubtedly refers to the righteousness of the

saints. In the Old Testament days to be blotted out of the book of

life meant to forfeit the privileges of the Theocracy--to be shut

out forever from God's favor. Here the certainty of the believer's

eternal security is assured. Christ will rejoice over him and gladly

confess that He knows him as one who belonged to Him and served

and confessed Him on the earth.


f) 3:12--The Believer Will Be a Pillar in the Temple of God; He

Shall Go Out No More; God Will Write Upon Him His Own New Name.


Philadelphia, the place in which was situated the church to whom

these words were written, was subject to earthquakes, and quite

frequently the massive pillars of the temple were shattered. It

shall not be so with the believer--he shall never be moved. He will

go in and out no more--no possibility of falling then. He will have

the name of God written upon him--no danger of anyone else making

claim to him. Then the believer's period of probation will have

passed away; he shall have a permanent and eternal place in the

kingdom of the Father.


g) 3:21, R. V.--"I Will Give to Him to Sit Down With Me in My

Throne."


Not "on" or "upon" but "in" my throne. Christ will exalt us with

Himself. James and John wanted to sit by Christ's side in the coming

kingdom. Here is something infinitely better--to sit with Him in

His throne.


VI. THE BELIEVER WILL ENTER INTO A NEW CONDITION AND ABODE OF LIFE.


1. A NEW SPHERE OF LIFE FOR THE SAINTS.


New Heavens and a new Earth: Paradise regained; new spiritual

environment; new physical conditions. Not surrounded by the

temptations and defects of this mortal life. "No more sea"--to the

Jew a symbol of unmixed peril, trouble, and restlessness.


2. A NEW HOME FOR THE SAINTS.


Rev. 21-22:5--A picture of the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, which

is to be the final and eternal abode of the people of God.


Within the New Heavens and on the New Earth is the Holy City.

Note some characteristics of the Holy City: Its _Name:_ New

Jerusalem--what music to the ear of the Jew, who for so long had

been without a city of his own! Its _Walls_ (21:17): high,

secure, safe against all assaults. Its _Gates_ (21:15, 21):

guarded by angels; names on gates; only saints enter. Its

_Foundations_ (v.14): the Apostles of the Lamb; lustrous

(18). Its _Citizens:_ of the nations that are saved (citizens'

characteristics 21:6, 7; 22:14, R. V.; contrast with 21:8, 27).

Its _Magnitude:_ 4800 stadia (the earthly Jerusalem being but

33 stadia). Its _Glory_ (11-23): what costliness!


3. NEW CONDITIONS OF LIFE FOR THE REDEEMED.


God's home is there (21:3); thus the believer has uninterrupted

communion with God. Some things that used to be have all passed

away: death, mourning, curse, tears, sorrow, night--all have gone.

New created things appear: the river of life, the tree of life,

new service, new relationships, new light (22:4).



    "AND AFTER THESE THINGS I HEARD A GREAT VOICE

    OF MUCH PEOPLE IN HEAVEN, SAYING, ALLELUIA;

    SALVATION, AND GLORY, AND HONOUR, AND POWER,

    UNTO THE LORD OUR GOD:


    "AND THE FOUR AND TWENTY ELDERS AND THE

      FOUR BEASTS FELL DOWN AND WORSHIPPED GOD THAT

    SAT ON THE THRONE, SAYING, AMEN; ALLELUIA.


    "AND A VOICE CAME OUT OF THE THRONE, SAYING,

    PRAISE OUR GOD, ALL YE HIS SERVANTS, AND YE THAT

    FEAR HIM, BOTH SMALL AND GREAT.


    "AND I HEARD AS IT WERE THE VOICE OF A GREAT

    MULTITUDE, AND AS THE VOICE OF MANY WATERS,

    AND AS THE VOICE OF MIGHTY THUNDERINGS, SAYING,

    ALLELUIA: FOR THE LORD GOD OMNIPOTENT REIGNETH.


    "LET US BE GLAD AND REJOICE, AND GIVE HONOUR

    TO HIM: FOR THE MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB IS COME,

    AND HIS WIFE HATH MADE HERSELF READY.


    "AND TO HER WAS GRANTED THAT SHE SHOULD BE

    ARRAYED IN FINE LINEN, CLEAN AND WHITE: FOR

    THE FINE LINEN IS THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF SAINTS."





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